March 2019



JOPERD: Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance

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  March 2019 (Volume 90, Issue 3)

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Table of Contents

Free Access Article
Combining the Skill Themes Approach with Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility to Teach Social and Emotional Learning in Elementary Physical Education
K. Andrew R. Richards, Victoria Nicole Ivy, Paul M. Wright, & Emily Jerris

Social and emotional learning competencies are included within physical education standards in the United States and abroad. Students should begin learning these important life skills in physical education at an early age, but most of the available teaching strategies target secondary environments. Physical educators can intentionally integrate social and emotional learning competencies in elementary settings through a combination of the skill themes approach and the personal and social responsibility model. This article provides a brief introduction to both the skill themes approach and the personal and social responsibility model, and an overview of four strategies for promoting social and emotional learning: (1) developing a student-centered learning environment, (2) creating progressions to help students learn social and emotional learning competencies, (3) being explicit about teaching social and emotional learning competencies, and (4) providing developmentally appropriate and relevant examples of transfer.

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Cooperative Learning: A Model-Based Practice in Physical Education—Introduction
Ben Dyson, Feature Editor

Cooperative learning (CL) is a dynamic instructional and pedagogical model that can be used to teach varied content to a diverse range of students. In this pedagogical model, students work together in small structured, heterogeneous groups to engage with subject-matter content tasks. Although less research on CL has been conducted in PE than in general education, existing studies have found that this instructional model can enhance students’ PE and physical activity experiences Within the literature on CL in PE, five elements are considered critical to CL: (1) positive interdependence, (2) individual accountability, (3) promotive face-to-face interaction, (4) interpersonal skills and small group skills, and (5) group processing. The thread that weaves throughout all the articles in this JOPERD feature is that they each represent a specific tenet of cooperative learning.

Cooperative Learning and the Affective Domain
Ashley Casey & Javier Fernandez-Rio

This article seeks to give practical examples of how teachers can promote the development of students’ affective learning using two cooperative learning structures: Student teams assessment divisions (STAD) and jigsaw classroom. It also includes a taxonomy aimed to help teachers value and assess their students’ affective learning. The article concludes by suggesting that if physical education is serious in its commitment to help all students learn across the different learning domains (i.e., physical, cognitive, social and affective), teachers need to be more selective in their choices of pedagogical approaches. In short, they must select those approaches capable of developing learning in the affective domain (e.g. cooperative learning and structures like STAD and jigsaw).

Social Thinking Skills and Cooperative Learning for Students with Autism
Michelle Grenier & Pat Yeaton

The purpose of this article is to describe how cooperative learning (CL) can be used in conjunction with social-thinking skills to address the learning needs of students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Cooperative learning is a pedagogical model in which students work together to solve a problem and complete a task. It is designed to maximize each student’s learning experiences. Social thinking encourages students to navigate CL by framing activities through perspective taking and understanding the actions of their peers. Teachers can use social thinking strategies to assist students to attain the desired goals by breaking down the skills so they can work in their CL groups. Strategies for introducing social thinking skills within the CL structure will be presented via a case scenario.

A Model for Group Processing in Cooperative Learning
Sue Sutherland, Paul T. Stuhr, James Ressler, Carol Smith & Anne Wiggin

Group processing is arguably the pivotal element when implementing cooperative learning (CL). It is the primary vehicle to help group members reflect on behaviors that impede or enable group work. Participating in group processing facilitates students’ understanding of their own personal and social development as they recognize how they have negotiated conflict, worked together to overcome struggles, and developed a new understanding of their group members. Despite the pivotal role it plays within CL, group processing is often forfeited due to lack of time, the misguided notion that students reflect by simply engaging in the activities, or because teachers do not know how to facilitate an effective group-processing session. Borrowing from the authors’ work in adventure-based learning, this article proposes that the Sunday afternoon drive debrief model provides an approach that prioritizes group processing for teachers using CL. While the Sunday afternoon drive model is briefly explained in this article, the main focus is on specific pedagogical strategies that have been used while implementing CL.

Applying Mastery TARGET Structures to Cooperative Learning in Physical Education
Kevin Morgan

The purpose of this article is to critically apply the mastery TARGET structures (task, authority, recognition, grouping, evaluation and time) to the cooperative learning (CL) model in physical education. The premise is that the TARGET structures are highly applicable to the CL model and that combining both approaches will optimize student motivation and inclusion in PE. The structure of the article follows the TARGET acronym and identifies how implementing each of the mastery TARGET structures could potentially enhance the motivational climate associated with the CL model for all students. The key elements of CL (positive interdependence; individual accountability; face-to-face interaction; interpersonal and small-group skills; and group processing) have close links to several of the TARGET structures and these are critically explored. It is anticipated that this article could be used to further enrich the CL model and to open up new avenues of research that combine TARGET and cooperative learning.

Concluding Thoughts
Ben Dyson, Feature Editor

Cooperative learning is emerging internationally as a legitimate pedagogical practice for physical educators in many countries. In the United States, recent educational policy initiatives have also drawn our attention to the importance and value of social-emotional learning for children. It is hoped that this cooperative learning feature will challenge the perspectives of preservice teachers, physical education teacher education faculty, researchers, and teachers alike, as all of us in the physical education have a lot to offer to the social and the emotional development of our students.


Recent Rulings from the Courts Affecting HPERD Professionals: Wrongful Death of a Physical Education Student
Tonya L. Sawyer

The family of a 14-year-old student who died of an asthma attack during a physical education class filed suit against the physical education teacher for failing to properly respond to the girl’s breathing complaints and symptoms, and against the school board, which knew of the student’s condition and was required to distribute an “emergency treatment plan.”

Development of a Fun Golf Unit for Elementary Students
Schecyl Santiago-Lugo & Christine Hopple

Golf develops physical skills, provides opportunities for recreation and socialization, and is lifelong physical activity — making it a worthwhile addition to any physical education curriculum. This article provides information on how a three-day golf unit can be implemented with students in grades 2 and 3.

Tips for Writing a Prompt
Mary Connolly

This article describes how to use backwards design to generate age-appropriate prompts for units in health education. It also describes how to create authentic assessments that include content- and skill-performance indicators.

Behavior Management: What I Have Learned
Barry Lavay

This article presents concepts that the author believes to be essential for the effective management of student behavior. These behavior management concepts will help both veteran and future physical education teachers to provide effective instruction to all students and enhance student learning.

A New Inclusive Physical Activity for All: FunEball
Jennifer Y. Mak & Eung-Soo Oh

This article presents a brief snapshot of FunEball, a new game that was designed to help children develop locomotor and object control skills with a focus on participation, collaboration and fun.