December 2021



RQES: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport

Member subscribers click below to view this current issue

  December 2021 (Volume 92, Issue 4)

Not a member? Become one now!

Table of Contents

Free Access Article
/ The Contribution of Physical Education to Physical Activity Within a Comprehensive School Health Promotion Program
Gabriella M. McLoughlin & Kim C. Graber

Purpose: Little is known about the role of physical education (PE) in a school health promotion model, particularly where wellness is placed at the forefront. The purpose of this study was to understand how PE contributes to the overall amount of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) that children receive in a school recognized for health promotion. Methods: As part of an in-depth case study, participants in grades 4–8 (N = 105) wore ActiGraph wGT3X+ accelerometers over 7 days to assess activity levels. Data were scored using ActiLife software. Using SPSS statistics software, students were grouped into low, moderate, and high activity through calculating tertile splits of average daily MVPA. Two 2 × 2 ANCOVA (sex x activity level) tests were conducted to determine the ratio of MVPA in PE to school and daily MVPA, controlling for age. Results: Participants accrued 8 min MVPA on average during PE with differences among low (6.4 ± 2.5), moderate (8.3 ± 3.7), and highly active participants (10.1 ± 4.0). ANCOVA analyses revealed non-significant interactions between sex and activity level explaining variance in contribution of PE to school MVPA (F(2, 99) = .235, p = .791, partial ŋ2 = .005) and daily MVPA (F(2, 99) = .299, p = .742, partial ŋ2 = .006), but significant main effects between high and low activity for daily MVPA were observed F(2, 99) = 5.118 p = .008, partial ŋ2 = .094. Conclusions: PE remains a priority in supporting children’s PA, particularly for those least active. Despite relatively low levels of MVPA, findings provide rationale for policy change supporting more frequent PE in schools.



Become a member and subscribe to RQES for access to these articles below:


2021 Charles H. McCloy Lecture: “You’re Not in Kansas Anymore” by Charles H. McCloy
Hans van der Mars


Developing Players’ Tactical Knowledge Using Combined Constraints-Led and Step-Game Approaches—A Longitudinal Action-Research Study
Ana Ramos, Patrícia Coutinho, Keith Davids, and Isabel Mesquita


Analysis of Physical and Technical Performance of Substitute Players in Professional Soccer
Miguel Lorenzo-Martínez, Alexis Padrón-Cabo, Ezequiel Rey, and Daniel Memmert


An Analysis of Literature on Sport Officiating Research
David J. Hancock, Samantha Bennett, Hannah Roaten, Kyle Chapman, and Caleb Stanley


A Teaching Games for Understanding Program to Deal With Reasons for Dropout in Under-11 Football
Carmen Barquero-Ruiz, María T. Morales-Belando, and José L. Arias-Estero


A Novel Assessment Technique Does Not Produce More Reliable Estimates of Maximal Neuromuscular Strength
Andrew N. L. Buskard, Kirk B. Roberson, and Joseph F. Signorile


The Relationship Between Athletic Performance and Physiological Characteristics in Wheelchair Basketball Athletes
Çağlar Soylu, Necmiye Ün Yıldırım, Cengiz Akalan, Bihter Akınoğlu, and Tuğba Kocahan


Effect of the Pronated Pull-Up Grip Width on Performance and Power-Force-Velocity Profile
R. Ortega-Rodríguez, B. Feriche, F. Almeida, J. Bonitch-Góngora, and P. Padial


Gender Differences in Prevalence and Patterns of Dietary Supplement Use in Elite Athletes
Millán Aguilar-Navarro, Gabriel Baltazar-Martins, Diego Brito de Souza, Jesús Muñoz-Guerra, María del Mar Plata, and Juan Del Coso


Gender and Black–White Race Differences in Young Adult Exercise Dependence Prevalence and Associated Disordered Eating
Rachel I. MacIntyre, Kristin E. Heron, Lindsay M. Howard, and Danielle Symons Downs


Power of the Curriculum: Content, Context, and Learning in Physical Education
Tan Zhang, Yubing Wang, Sami Yli-Piipari, and Ang Chen


Learning to Teach Physical Education for Health: Breaking the Curriculum Safety Zone
Qiao Zhu, Hejun Shen, and Ang Chen


Adaptation of Anaerobic Field-Based Tests for Wheelchair Basketball Athletes
Vinícius M. R. Weber, Daniel Z. Fernandes, Edgar R. Vieira, Sandra A. Ferreira, Danilo F. da Silva, and Marcos R. Queiroga


Assessing the Ecological-Context Strengths of School-Based Talent Development Programs in Rugby League
Balin Cupples, Donna O’Connor, and Stephen Cobley


The Specific Impact of Nutrition and Physical Activity on Adolescents’ Body Composition and Energy Balance
Souzana K. Papadopoulou, Konstantinos G. Feidantsis, Maria N. Hassapidou, and Spyridon Methenitis


Effect of Manipulating Advanced Kinematic Information on Hitting Movement Prediction, Perception, and Action
Ryota Takamido, Keiko Yokoyama, and Yuji Yamamoto


Cortisol Awakening Response and Heart Rate Variability in the Menstrual Cycle of Sportswomen
Yıldırım Kayacan, Yücel Makaracı, Tuba Ozgocer, Cihat Ucar, and Sedat Yıldız


Research Notes

Website Representations of Physical Education and Physical Activity: Comparison of Public Charter and Private Schools
David Kahan and Thomas L. McKenzie