June 2018




RQES: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport

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  June 2018 (Volume 89, Issue 2)

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Free Access Article
/2018 Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport Lecture: The History of Aerobics (50 Years and Still Counting)® Programming
Kenneth H. Cooper

Looking back over the 50 years since Aerobics was published, I could never have expected for there to have been a major change in physicians’ attitudes toward the value of exercise in the practice of medicine. In my lifetime, I never thought I would see a stress test be considered a mandatory component of a complete examination, inactivity classified as importantly as high blood pressure and high cholesterol, and cigarette smoking considered a coronary risk factor. I have tried in this Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport (RQES) Lecture presentation to document how this slow but gradual transition took place due to my work and the work of many of my colleagues in this field, along with the important work of The Cooper Institute. In June 1970, I chartered the institute 6 months before I saw my first patient at the Cooper Clinic, but now with the Cooper Center Longitudinal Study being the largest database in the world comparing measured levels of fitness, instead of relying only on questionnaires and correlating fitness and health in our more than 700 published peer-review articles, we have proven and can safely say that “exercise is medicine.” In greater detail, I want this lecture to present what we and others have done in this scientific endeavor, and even the harshest critics are now saying that “these results are too impressive to be ignored.”


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The Importance of Adolescents’ Participation in Organized Sport According to VO2peak: A Longitudinal Study
Pal Lagestad and Ingar Mehus

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine how regular participation in organized and unorganized PA affected the development of adolescents’ CRF (peak oxygen consumption [VO2peak]), when controlled for sex interaction.
Method: Data on direct measures of VO2peak and participation in organized PA among adolescents organized into 3 groups (participation in organized sport, participation in unorganized PA, and no weekly PA) were collected from 76 students (39 boys and 37 girls), when they were aged 14 and 19 years old.
Results: Statistically significant differences were found between VO2peak values in the 3 groups at both 14 years of age, F(2, 73) = 7.16, p < .05, ƞ2 = .170, and 19 years of age, F(2, 73) = 14.00, p < .05, ƞ2 = .300, independent of sex at both 14 and 19 years of age, F(2, 73) = 0.05, p > .05, ƞ2 = .02, and F(2, 73) = 0.05, p > .05, ƞ2 = .00. Adolescents participating in organized sport also had statistically significantly higher VO2peak values than adolescents participating in unorganized PA and those with no weekly PA, at both 14 and 19 years of age.
Conclusion: From a health perspective, in terms of CRF, the findings highlight the importance of encouraging adolescents to participate in organized sport and to refrain from dropping out of organized sport programs.

Academic-Based and Aerobic-Only Movement Breaks: Are There Differential Effects on Physical Activity and Achievement?
Alicia L. Fedewa, Elizabeth Fettrow, Heather Erwin, Soyeon Ahn, and Minnah Farook

Purpose: This study investigated the academic achievement and physical activity differences between types of activity breaks implemented in elementary school classrooms. This study evaluated whether there was a difference between the impact of purely aerobic-based movement breaks and the impact of academic-based breaks on children’s academic achievement outcomes.
Method: Participants included 460 children in 3rd grade through 5th grade at 4 elementary schools. There were 176 children in the schools that engaged in academic-based breaks and 284 in the schools that engaged in aerobic-only breaks. Schools were randomly assigned at the school level to implement either aerobic movement breaks with academic content infused within the breaks (“academic-based breaks”) or aerobic-only movement breaks without the addition of academic material (“aerobic-only breaks”) for approximately 10 min of activity per day. Math and reading achievement as well as children’s step counts were measured before and after the intervention. A mixed-effects (multilevel-growth) model, in which the repeated measures of individuals nested within a classroom are analyzed, was used to answer all posited research questions.
Results: Small to moderate effect sizes (ES) indicating gains in reading achievement (ES = .13) and steps (ES = .33) were found for classrooms that used aerobic-only movement breaks compared with those that used academic-based breaks.
Conclusion: The type of movement breaks that are implemented in classrooms may have differential outcomes for children’s achievement and activity levels. Results from the present study indicate that children who were given aerobic-only movement breaks had slightly larger gains in reading achievement and physical activity levels than children who were given academic-based breaks.

Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Cognitive Performance Among Young Adults in a Higher Education Setting
Sebastian Ludyga, Markus Gerber, Serge Brand, Uwe Pühse, and Flora Colledge

Purpose: Acute benefits of aerobic exercise on executive functioning have been reported frequently under laboratory conditions. However, to date, a beneficial effect on long-term memory has been less well supported and no data are available regarding nonlaboratory conditions in young adults. The aim of the current study was to investigate acute effects of aerobic exercise on cognitive functioning in a university classroom setting.
Method: Using a cross-over design, 51 participants performed a bout of moderately intense running (RUN) and read an article while seated (CON). Afterwards, they completed free-recall tests, followed by a Flanker task and an n-back task.
Results: Participants in the RUN condition compared with those in the CON condition showed shorter reaction time on the inhibition task, F(1, 50) = 5.59, p = .022, η2 = .101, and recalled more words in the immediate- and delayed-recall tests, F(1, 50) = 8.40, p = .006, η2 = .144.
Conclusion: The present findings suggest that a moderately intense bout of aerobic exercise benefits verbal short-term and long-term memory as well as inhibitory control among students in a classroom setting.

Water-Based Aerobic Training Successfully Improves Lipid Profile of Dyslipidemic Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Rochelle Rocha Costa, Carmen Pilla, Adriana Cristine Koch Buttelli, Michelle Flores Barreto, Priscila Azevedo Vieiro, Cristine Lima Alberton, Cláudia Gomes Bracht, and Luiz Fernando Martins Kruel

Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the effects of water-based aerobic training on the lipid profile and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) levels in premenopausal women with dyslipidemia.
Method: Forty women were randomly assigned to: aquatic training (WA; n = 20) or a control group (CG; n = 20). The WA group underwent 12 weeks of water-based interval aerobic training twice a week at intensities ranging from 9 to 15 on the Borg Scale of Perceived Exertion. Total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high- (HDL) and low- (LDL) density lipoprotein, TC/HDL ratio, LPL levels, and peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) were evaluated before and after 12 weeks in both groups.
Results: The WA group elicited decreases in TC (9%; effect size (ES) = 0.69; 95% CI (0.05, 1.33)), LDL (16%; ES = 0.78; 95% CI (0.13, 1.42)), and the TC/HDL ratio (17%; ES = 1.13; 95% CI (0.46, 1.79)), as well as increases in VO2peak (10%; ES = 0.64; 95% CI (0.002, 1.27)) and HDL (10%; ES = 0.28; 95% CI (−0.35. 0.90)), without significant changes in TG (ES = 0.16; 95% CI (−0.46, 1.79)) and LPL (ES = 0.36; 95% CI (−0.27, 0.98)) levels. In the CG, no statistically significant changes in any of these variables were found (TC, ES = 0.19, 95% CI (−0.43, 0.82); LDL, ES = 0.22, 95% CI (−0.40, 0.85); HDL, ES = 0.05, 95% CI (−0.57, 0.67); TG, ES = 0.09, 95% CI (−0.53, 0.71); TC/HDL ratio, ES = 0.20, 95% CI (−0.42, 0.82); LPL, ES = 0.02, 95% CI (−0.60, 0.64); VO2peak, ES = 0.20, 95% CI (−0.42, 0.82)).
Conclusion: Water-based interval aerobic training positively affected the lipid profile in premenopausal dyslipidemic women.

Effect of Mouthguard Use on Metabolic and Cardiorespiratory Responses to Aerobic Exercise in Males
Michael S. Green, Amanda K. Benson, and Tyler D. Martin

Purpose: This study investigated the physiological effects of wearing a mouthguard during submaximal treadmill exercise.
Method: Twenty-four recreationally active males (Mage = 21.3 ± 2.4 years, Mheight = 1.78 ± 0.06 m, Mweight = 81.9 ± 10.6 kg, Mbody mass index = 25.8 ± 3.4 kg·m−2) performed incremental, continuous exercise at 2, 4, 6, and 8 mph (3.2, 6.4, 9.7, 12.9 kph) for 5 min at each speed on a motor-driven treadmill on 2 separate occasions in a randomized, crossover, counterbalanced design while wearing or not wearing a self-adaptable “boil and bite” mouthguard. Respiratory rate (RR), tidal volume (VT), ventilation (VE), oxygen consumption (VO2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and heart rate (HR) data were averaged during the last 60 s of each exercise stage; blood lactate (LA) was measured before exercise and 3 min and 10 min following exercise.
Results: Repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed that mouthguard use failed to alter the response of RR, VT, VE, VO2, RER, and HR to treadmill exercise (p > .05), although each variable did increase in magnitude as a result of increasing treadmill speed (p < .001). Although increasing to above resting values at both 3 min and 10 min (p < .001) after cessation of exercise, LA levels also displayed no differences with mouthguard use (p > .05).
Conclusion: Despite predictable increases in respiratory, metabolic, and cardiovascular variables in response to incremental exercise, the presence of a mouthguard failed to affect the magnitude or nature of these physiological responses.

Individual Differences Influencing Immediate Effects of Internal and External Focus Instructions on Children’s Motor Performance
Femke van Abswoude, Nienke B. Nuijen, John van der Kamp, and Bert Steenbergen

Purpose: A large pool of evidence supports the beneficial effect of an external focus of attention on motor skill performance in adults. In children, this effect has been studied less and results are inconclusive. Importantly, individual differences are often not taken into account. We investigated the role of working memory, conscious motor control, and task-specific focus preferences on performance with an internal and external focus of attention in children.
Methods: Twenty-five children practiced a golf putting task in both an internal focus condition and external focus condition. Performance was defined as the average distance toward the hole in 3 blocks of 10 trials. Task-specific focus preference was determined by asking how much effort it took to apply the instruction in each condition. In addition, working memory capacity and conscious motor control were assessed.
Results: Children improved performance in both the internal focus condition and external focus condition (ŋp2 = .47), with no difference between conditions (ŋp2 = .01). Task-specific focus preference was the only factor moderately related to the difference between performance with an internal focus and performance with an external focus (r = .56), indicating better performance for the preferred instruction in Block 3.
Conclusion: Children can benefit from instruction with both an internal and external focus of attention to improve short-term motor performance. Individual, task-specific focus preference influenced the effect of the instructions, with children performing better with their preferred focus. The results highlight that individual differences are a key factor in the effectiveness in children’s motor performance. The precise mechanisms underpinning this effect warrant further research.

Who SKIPS? Using Temperament to Explain Differential Outcomes of a Motor Competence Intervention for Preschoolers
Sally A. Taunton, Kelly Lynn Mulvey, and Ali S. Brian

Purpose: Although motor skill interventions often improve fundamental motor skills (FMS) during preschool, the extent of individual children’s success in development of FMS still varies among children receiving the same intervention. Temperament is multifaceted and includes negative affect (high levels of frustration or anger), effortful control (focus, self-regulation, and concentration), and surgency (energy and activity level). Temperament often influences cognitive, social, and behavioral outcomes and may be a significant factor in the development of FMS. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of temperament on children’s improvement in FMS within a gross motor intervention.
Method: Participants (N = 80; Mage = 55.36 months, SD = 6.99 months) completed the Test of Gross Motor Development-Second Edition prior to and after intervention. Teachers completed the Child Behavior Questionnaire-Very Short Form to examine each child’s temperament. To account for possibility of a Type 1 error, we conducted 6 separate 2 (temperament variable: high, low) × 2 (treatment: intervention, control) analyses of covariance and examined posttest scores for locomotor and object-control skills with pretest scores as covariates among participants with high and low surgency, negative affect, and effortful control.
Results: Results revealed children with low levels of negative affect and surgency and high levels of effortful control demonstrated greater gains (ηp2 = .05–.34) in both locomotor and object-control skills during motor skill intervention compared with their peers.
Conclusion: Providing interventions tailored to temperamental profiles could maximize gains in FMS through intervention.

Kicking Performance in Young U9 to U20 Soccer Players: Assessment of Velocity and Accuracy Simultaneously
Luiz H. P. Vieira, Sérgio A. Cunha, Renato Moraes, Fabio A. Barbieri, Rodrigo Aquino, Lucas de P. Oliveira, Martina Navarro, Bruno L. S. Bedo, and Paulo R. P. Santiago

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the kicking performance of young soccer players in the U9 to U20 age groups.
Method: TwThree hundred and sixty-six Brazilian players were evaluated on an official pitch using three-dimensional kinematics to measure (300 Hz) ball velocity (Vball), foot velocity (Vfoot), Vball/Vfoot ratio, last stride length, and distance between the support foot and the ball. Simultaneously, a two-dimensional procedure was also conducted to compute (60 Hz) the mean radial error, bivariate variable error, and accuracy. Possible age-related differences were assessed through one-way analysis of variance and magnitude-based inferences.
Results: Ball velocity increased by 103% (p < .001, η2 = .39) from the U11 age group (48.54 ± 8.31 km/hr) to the U20 age group (98.74 ± 16.35 km/hr). Foot velocity presented a 59% increase (p < .001, η2 = .32) from the U11 age group (49.08 ± 5.16 km/hr) to U20 (78.24 ± 9.49 km/hr). This finding was due to improvement in the quality of foot–ball impact (Vball/Vfoot ratio) from U11 (0.99 ± 0.13 a.u.) to U20 (1.26 ± 0.11 a.u.; p < .001, η2 = .25). Parameters such as mean radial error and accuracy appeared to be impaired during the growth spurt (U13–U15). Last stride length was correlated, low to moderately high, with Vball in all age groups (r = .36–.79).
Conclusion: In summary, we concluded that simple biomechanical parameters of kicking performance presented distinct development. These results suggest that different training strategies specific for each age group could be applied. We provide predictive equations to aid coaches in the long-term monitoring process to develop the kick in soccer or search for talented young players.

Physical Education Preservice Teachers’ Perceptions About Preparation for Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs
Ja Youn Kwon, Pamela Hodges Kulinna, Hans van der Mars, Mirka Koro-Ljungberg, Audrey Amrein-Beardsley, and Jason Norris

Purpose: Physical educators may be the responsible people for implementing comprehensive school physical activity programs (CSPAPs) in schools. However, it is unclear whether physical education teacher education (PETE) programs provide the relevant learning opportunities to preservice teachers for CSPAP implementation. The purpose of this study was to understand preservice teachers’ perspectives and experiences of CSPAP preparation in their PETE programs.
Method: Fourteen PETE students from 6 different universities participated and shared their experiences in PETE programs. Data were collected through a short survey, 1 formal interview, field images, document gathering, and an additional survey to follow up the interview. Descriptive statistics, constant comparison, and analytic induction techniques were used to analyze the data.
Results: Participants’ familiarity with CSPAPs was related to positive opinions about the role of physical educators in CSPAPs. Three common themes were revealed: (a) introducing CSPAP via courses, (b) the lack of programwide hands-on experiences for CSPAP, and (c) limited preparation for social skills with stakeholders. Participants’ perceptions of the role of physical educators as physical activity leaders had been expanded during their training.
Conclusion: The participating PETE programs integrated CSPAP components in the existing courses to introduce CSPAP, while there was a lack of sufficient practical opportunities to learn how to implement (aspects of) a CSPAP. Participants felt they were insufficiently prepared to promote and implement expanded physical activity programming beyond physical education classes in schools. The majority of the PETE preservice teachers wanted more practical CSPAP experiences in their programs.

One Teacher’s Experience of Teaching Physical Education and Another School Subject: An Inter-Role Conflict?
Cassandra Iannucci and Ann MacPhail

Purpose: This study was situated within a longitudinal study of 5 teachers examining the realities of teaching physical education by determining the impact of individual dispositions and contextual factors on the career trajectories of postprimary physical education teachers in Ireland (Iannucci & MacPhail, 2017). One of these participants, Jane, was examined in this study to gain a greater understanding of the realities and tensions experienced by a postprimary teacher enacting 2 distinct sets of role expectations when teaching physical education and another school subject concurrently.
Method: Data reported in this article were collected through a semistructured interview and living graph. An interpretative framework was used for analysis, assessing Jane’s perceived meanings of the identified critical incidents in relation to role theory.
Results: Teachers timetabled with physical education and another subject concurrently may be expected to navigate and negotiate 2 distinctly different roles within the school community causing difficulty in assuming both roles simultaneously. Short narratives were used to convey 2 themes: (a) role prioritization and (b) role performance.
Conclusion: The study results suggest that the already complex and multifaceted role of a school teacher (Richards, Templin, Levesque-Bristol, & Blankenship, 2014) seems to be further complicated when teachers are tasked with simultaneously teaching physical education and another school subject. With the presence of a role conflict management strategy such as role prioritization (Stryker, 1968), one can presume that teachers who are tasked with teaching physical education and another school subject may experience some level of role conflict.

Reliability and Validity of Finger Strength and Endurance Measurements in Rock Climbing
Michail Lubomirov Michailov, Jiří Baláš, Stoyan Kolev Tanev, Hristo Stoyanov Andonov, Jan Kodejška, and Lee Brown

Purpose: An advanced system for the assessment of climbing-specific performance was developed and used to: (a) investigate the effect of arm fixation (AF) on construct validity evidence and reliability of climbing-specific finger-strength measurement; (b) assess reliability of finger-strength and endurance measurements; and (c) evaluate the relationship between finger flexor all-out test scores and climbing ability.
Method: To determine the effect of AF, 22 male climbers performed 2 maximal strength and all-out tests with AF (shoulder and elbow flexed at 90°) and without AF (shoulder flexed at 180° and elbow fully extended). To determine reliability, 9 male climbers completed 2 maximal strength tests with and without AF and an all-out and intermittent test without AF.
Results: The maximal strength test without AF more strongly determined climbing ability than the test with AF (r2 = .48 and r2 = .42 for sport climbing; r2 = .66 and r2 = .42 for bouldering, respectively). Force and time variables were highly reliable; the rate of force development and fatigue index had moderate and low reliability. The maximal strength test with AF provided slightly higher reliability than without AF (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.94, ICC = 0.88, respectively). However, smaller maximal forces were achieved during AF (484 ± 112 N) than without AF (546 ± 132 N). All-out test average force had sufficiently high reliability (ICC = 0.92) and a relationship to sport climbing (r2 = .42) and bouldering ability (r2 = .58).
Conclusion: Finger strength and endurance measurements provided sufficient construct validity evidence and high reliability for time and force parameters. Arm fixation provides more reliable results; however, the position without AF is recommended as it is more related to climbing ability.

The Identification of Reasons, Solutions, and Techniques Informing a Theory-Based Intervention Targeting Recreational Sports Participation
Tom St Quinton and Julie A. Brunton

Purpose: This study is the 3rd piece of formative research utilizing the theory of planned behavior to inform the development of a behavior change intervention. Focus groups were used to identify reasons for and solutions to previously identified key beliefs in addition to potentially effective behavior change techniques.
Method: A purposive sample of 22 first-year undergraduate students (n = 8 men; Mage = 19.8 years, SD = 1.3 years) attending a university in the North of England was used. Focus groups were audio-recorded; recordings were transcribed verbatim, analyzed thematically, and coded for recurrent themes.
Results: The data revealed 14 reasons regarding enjoyment, 11 reasons for friends’ approval, 11 reasons for friends’ own participation, 14 reasons for the approval of family members, and 10 solutions to time constraints. Twelve distinct techniques were suggested to attend to these reasons and solutions.
Conclusion: This qualitative research will be used to inform the development of a theory-based intervention to increase students’ participation in university recreational sports.

Research Notes

The Effect of CHAMP on Physical Activity and Lesson Context in Preschoolers: A Feasibility Study
Leah E. Robinson, Kara K. Palmer, E. Kipling Webster, Samuel W. Logan, and Katherine M. Chinn

Purpose: This feasibility study compared the effects of 2 movement programs, traditional and mastery climate (i.e., the Children’s Health Activity Motor Program [CHAMP]), on lesson context and children’s physical activity (PA) levels. A secondary aim was to examine sex differences in PA levels in both programs.
Method: Seventy-two preschoolers served as participants and were assigned to a movement program. Physical activity levels and lesson context were assessed with the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time.
Results: Preschoolers in CHAMP spent more time walking (p < .05, d = 3.3), more time in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA; p < .05, d = 3.6), and less time standing (p < .05, d = 3.8) compared with those in a traditional movement program. Boys in both programs spent less time standing (p < .05, d = 4.8) and more time in vigorous activity (p < .05, d = 5.8) and MVPA (p < .05, d = 4.4) compared with girls. During CHAMP, children spent less time engaged in management and knowledge (p < .05, d = 1.4, and p < .001, d = 0.9, respectively) and more time in skill practice (p < .05, d = 1.5).
Conclusion: The findings support that participation in CHAMP elicits more MVPA in preschool-age children compared with a traditional movement program. The Children’s Health Activity Motor Program provided children with more class time devoted to skill practice. The program appears to be an innovative approach that is beneficial for PA engagement and could contribute positively to children’s health.