RQES Table of Contents
Profiles of Health-Related Quality of Life and Their Relationships With Happiness, Physical Activity, and Fitness
Quality of life is individuals’ perception of their position in life, within the context of culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards, and concerns (WHOQOL Group, 1995). As a critical component of quality of life, health related quality of life (HRQOL) is the perceived sense of physical and mental well-being over time (Kruger et al., 2007; Varni et al., 2001), which reflects high levels of mental and physical functioning, such as relationships, perceptions of health, fitness, life satisfaction, and wellbeing (Theofilou, 2013). HRQOL is a subjective and multidimensional concept (Wallander & Koot, 2016), encompassing both physical and psychosocial health (Varni et al., 2001). In physical activity (PA) research, these two types of health concepts have been often examined as a whole, leading to overall satisfaction with health and well-being (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [USDHHS], 2010). Researchers (Hann & Reeves, 2008; Kruger et al., 2007) find that the two types of health are positively correlated and individuals can be “high” in both health, or “low” in both. However, Simon et al. (1998) have argued that the correlation is varied dependent upon different contexts and conditions. When the condition or treatment of interest has strong effects, the coherent picture between physical and psychosocial health can be mitigated. To date, little research has examined the possibility of different mixed profiles (i.e., high in one, low in the other) in adolescents and how the mixed profiles are related to relevant factors.
From an ecological perspective (Bronfenbrenner, 2005; Freire & Ferreira, 2018), both internal and external elements can attribute to the development of HRQOL. Researchers have revealed that HRQOL is associated with factors from individual (e.g., gender, age, biological characters; Meade & Dowswell, 2016; World Health Organization [WHO], 2016), physical (e.g., health, body mass index, fitness; Shen et al., 2019; Zhang et al., 2016), psychological (e.g., self-esteem, stress, positive and negative emotions; Abdel-khalek, 2010; Gaspar et al., 2011), and social (e.g., satisfaction with social support, relations with family and peer group; Gaspar et al., 2011; Raboteg-Saric & Sakic, 2014) domains. Considering HRQOL and its relationships with multifaceted and comprehensive factors will help design strategies to promote health and well-being (USDHHS, 2010). With these in mind, we designed this study to characterize the interactions of the two types of health in HRQOL using a cluster analytic approach and examine their relationships with psychological and physical/behavioral factors. Particularly, we specified happiness, physical activity (PA), and physical fitness as the representatives.
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