September/October 2017



Strategies: A Journal for Physical and Sport Educators

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  September/October 2017 (Volume 30, Issue 5)

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Table of Contents

Free Access Article
Wiffle Ball: Turning a Backyard Favorite into an Appropriate Physical Education UnitFitness Assessment: Recommendations for an Enjoyable Student Experience – Sharon Phillips, Risto Marttinen, & Kevin Mercier

Fitness assessment can be an important and useful component of physical education. This article discusses how to avoid the pitfalls that lead to negative student experiences with fitness assessment and presents research-based suggestions for creating a positive experience for all students. A section to help teachers understand how to properly use fitness assessment within the physical education program is included, with examples of lesson ideas and resources aligned with each recommendation. It is hoped that teachers will use this information to help students to gain the benefits of participating in fitness assessment as part of their physical education program.

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Injury and Inclusion: Understanding Common Legal Concerns in Physical Education – Timothy Baghurst, Lauren McCoy, & Keri Esslinger
Physical education teachers are often focused on the many benefits of physical education to students, but there must also be a consideration of risk. How can the risks in physical education be minimized to maximize the benefits? One way to accomplish this goal is to increase physical educators’ understanding of the legal risks related to instruction. Injuries occurring in physical education classes and related activities often are accidental, yet sometimes occur due to mistakes made by the instructor. In accidental situations, the threat of a lawsuit filed against the school and the instructor remains a possibility. Therefore, developing a plan that considers legal issues and minimizes injury risk is essential. This article highlights two legal concerns that physical education instructors should know and incorporate into their lesson plans: negligence/accidental injury and discrimination-based claims. A general overview of what is necessary for a successful defense is presented through related case examples so that physical education instructors can understand more about their individual liability and what can be done to minimize the risk of legal action against them.

Upcycling Secondary Physical Education: The Journey to Creating Goal-Oriented Courses – Susan Nye & Jacqueline Williams
The ultimate goal of a quality physical education program is to develop physically literate individuals who demonstrate skill competencies, apply knowledge, demonstrate health-enhancing behaviors, exhibit prosocial behaviors, and recognize the value of physical activity for a lifetime. The development and implementation of goal-oriented physical education courses is just one step toward the upcycling of secondary physical education. This article highlights the steps when developing quality secondary physical education courses that emphasize the learning of skills, knowledge and positive attitudes. By understanding the interconnectedness of planning, teaching, assessing and learning, a high-quality course can be developed to ensure student learning and student growth. The purpose of this article is to address the 'upcycling' of secondary physical education through the development of goal-oriented courses.

Building a Pedagogical Coaching Base: Pursuing Expertise in Teaching Sport – Task Progression Strategies – Stu Ryan, Karen Baxter, & Casandra Waller
Teachers are often challenged with trying to determine the most effective way of developing task progression. Following developmentally appropriate steps that will lead to effective skill development can facilitate student learning. Using the acronym NEMWPT — which stands for No equipment, Equipment, Movement, Wall work, Partners, and Teams — may aid the teacher in following appropriate progressions. This article explains how these key words can help teachers develop appropriate task progressions to ensure student success.

Mental Toughness – Lauren Cavanaugh & Tori Quinn
Mental toughness (MT) is defined as a set of attributes that allow an individual to persevere through difficult circumstances that ultimately can lead to successful outcomes. It is also a critical component of maximizing the performance of an athlete. These attributes assist with and promote a state of mind that enhances performance. A negative state of mind can work against an athlete and inhibit performance. Mental toughness consists of six elements: strength, flexibility, resiliency, sportsmanship, responsiveness and ethics. Goal setting, self-talk and visual imagery are also factors that play a role in MT. Mental toughness minimizes the mental inhibition one can develop subconsciously. Multiple studies have examined whether MT can be developed or whether it is something that is already present in the individual through genetics. There are arguments to support both sides of this debate. This article describes skills that make a person more mentally tough, as well as strategies to improve MT.


Self-Regulation Strategy Development as an Instructional Approach for Motor Skill Acquisition – Nichole D. Calkins

Abstract: Physical educators must utilize effective strategies to teach motor skills that will enhance students’ physically active lifestyle. This article explains how to incorporate self-regulation strategy development into the physical education setting and how students can benefit from such an approach.

Developing Personal and Social Responsibility: Committing Time to Reflection – Victoria Nicole Ivy & Jennifer M. Jacobs

Abstract: This article further describes the importance of integrating personal and social responsibility with movement in physical education, and offers strategies to promote reflection and discussion, ensuring that children are being provided an empowering and holistic learning experience.

The Running Zombies: Using Entertainment Themes to Enhance Youth Physical Activity – Damon Leiss, Paul E. Luebbers, Jodie Leiss, Tyler Tapps, & Timothy Baghurst

Abstract: Capitalizing on the popularity of zombie-themed entertainment among youth, this article details a game called Running Zombies, intended for elementary age children. It is a team game that combines physical activity and social skill development.