Strategies Cover March April 2021
March / April 2021



Strategies: A Journal for Physical and Sport Educators

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  March/April 2021 (Volume 34, Issue 2)

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Table of Contents

Free Access Article
Motivation is not Always Black and White: Attending to African American Athletes’ Psychological Needs for Sport Involvement
– Adam Ahrens and Tsz Lun (Alan) Chu

Athletics in the current society is a place of diversity with athletes coming from all walks of life and cultural backgrounds. Athletes of different cultural backgrounds, African American athletes in particular, have experienced barriers and biases and subsequently different motivational factors from Caucasian athletes that influence their overall participation in sports. Thus, it becomes important to understand potential differences in athlete’s involvement in athletics and implementing changes to help promote a positive climate for African American athletes to feel motivated in pursuing involvement in sports, especially since a majority of professional coaches are Caucasian. In this article, we review prior research that highlights motivational differences between African American and Caucasian athletes and translate them to coaching practices.

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Seamless Transitions: From Teacher to Substitute and Back Again
Alexandra Stoddart and Nicole Cameron

This article provides best practices for both teachers and substitute teachers; not only will these suggestions help teachers and substitutes, but they will also help ease the transition for students and maximize learning while their teacher is away. Practical examples of strategies for teachers are included such as phonetically spelled class lists and concise substitute folders with need to know and nice to know information to be communicated to the substitute. Advice for substitutes to transition the teaching space back to the teacher is also included.

The Metacognition Journey: Strategies for Teacher Candidate Exploration of Self & Student Metacognition
Claire Mowling and Sandra Sims

The purpose of this article is to provide (1) declarative knowledge on metacognition, (2) procedural knowledge on how to design metacognitive learning experiences for both teacher candidates and their students, and (3) strategic/conditional knowledge on when to use these metacognitive strategies. Educators can teach, develop, and support metacognition by devising activities that take their students through the metacognitive process.

10 Practical Strategies to Motivate Students in Physical Education: Psychological Need-Support Approach
PMika Manninen and Sami Yli-Piipari

Self-determination theory postulates that student motivation can be enhanced by supporting physical education students’ basic needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Physical education teachers are in a unique position to motivate and help their students to achieve the best possible outcomes in physical education. First, this article provides a short summary of the history and impact of need-supportive instruction on physical education students’ learning experiences and outcomes. Second, 10 evidence-based and most impactful need-supportive instructional strategies are introduced. Finally, need-supportive strategies are discussed as it relates to schools of today.

Adopting the National Coaching Standards in Sport Programs
Brent Heidorn and Peter Stoepker

This article briefly highlights each overarching theme and provides insight for ways coaches can apply these standards while working with athletes in various sport environments. Coaches play a very important role in an athlete’s life. In many cases, this role continues far beyond one sport season. Therefore, it is imperative for all coaches to be cognizant of the nationally adopted standards of the profession, but more importantly, consistently apply them.


Redesigning High School Physical Education Curricula to Meet Students’ Needs
– Shelby E. Ison, Tracey Jakaitis, K. Andrew R. Richards, and Shannon Pennington

School districts across the nation are reducing and/or eliminating physical education requirements. In 2017, the Illinois legislature adopted an amendment to Senate Bill 1947 which eliminated the daily PE requirement in schools, thus removing Illinois from the short list of states requiring daily PE. The purpose of this article is to share the changes Illinois School District U-46 implemented to their high school PE curricula which they feel better meets their students’ needs.

Engaging Students in Health Literacy Through Fiction Novels
– LeAnn Olson and Kason O’Neil

Personal identification with characters from a story impacted thinking and attitudes of subjects. Therefore, using narratives such as fiction novels can provide a richer and more authentic and impactful learning experience, compared to solely providing facts or short scenarios. There are a variety of ways to access and use novels to increase the depth of learning in most, if not all, content areas within secondary health education.

Scrambled Legs: Instant Running Activities for Elementary-age Children
– Seth E. Jenny

This article provides a sampling of coach-tested distance running activities that have been successfully implemented with elementary children (grades 2-6) that can be immediately implemented by any physical educator or coach.

Ten Coaching Tips for High School Athletics During the COVID-19 Pandemic
– Bijen Filiz, Ferman Konukman, Yasin Karaca, and Ertan Tufekcioglu

High school sports play a vital role in students' lives. These sports are closely linked to participation in extracurricular activities, higher grade point averages, higher levels of participation, and fewer discipline problems. Given that schools and sports clubs are closed in most countries due to COVID-19, it is more vital than ever for coaches to stay connected with athletes.

Using Wearable Devices to Enhance Quality of Physical Educations for Students
– Md. Dilsad Ahmed and Willie Chun Wai Leung

Exergaming and wearable devices have been implemented successfully in PE classes. It can potentially increase motivation for physical activity and participation in PE classes. Exergames showed to have a positive influence by increasing the physical activity among inactive children during PE classes. The popularity of wearable devices among students undoubtedly increase its usages in PE classes. However, what remains unknown is whether the implementation of these devices at the same time (exergames and wearable devises) can help in promoting and embedding ‘Quality’ in PE classes.