March 2019



RQES: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport

Member subscribers click below to view this current issue

  March 2019 (Volume 90, Issue 1)

Not a member? Become one now!

Table of Contents

Free Access Article
/ Parental Behavior, Cognitive Appraisal, and Motivation in Young Athletes
A. Rui Gomes, A. Manuela Gonçalves, Olga Dias, and Catarina Morais

Purpose: This study tested two hypotheses relating young athletes’ sports motivations to parental behaviors and cognitive appraisal: (1) young athletes’ motivation in sports is related to their parents’ behavior; and (2) this relationship is mediated by cognitive appraisal, even after controlling for competitive level and sports records.
Method: This cross-sectional study included 673 young athletes and it measured the athletes’ perceptions of parental behaviors, cognitive appraisal, and sports motivation.
Results: Structural equation modeling confirmed Hypothesis 1–the mother’s behaviors accounted for 15 to 16% of the variance in sports motivation, and the father’s behaviors accounted for 12 to 21% of the variance. The correlation patterns differed according to whether the athletes were evaluating the mother’s or father’s behaviors. Hypothesis 2 also was confirmed, for cognitive appraisal partially mediated the relationship between the perception of parental behaviors and sports motivation (34% of the variance was accounted for by the perception of the mother’s behavior; 30% by the father’s). The mediating model did not vary with competitive level or sports records.
Conclusion: Parental behaviors and cognitive appraisal need to be taken into account to understand young athletes’ sports motivations.



Become a member and subscribe to RQES for access to these articles below:


Changing of the Guard! Extending Impact and Reach
A. Mark Williams

In the autumn of 2018, I had the great honor of becoming the new Editor-in-Chief (EIC) of Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. I believe the journal is the oldest publication in the field, with the first issue appearing in 1930 under the title of Research Quarterly; it became Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport in 1980. I suspect that the founding EIC, Elmer D. Mitchell, and all his successors, would be overwhelmed with joy that the journal will celebrate its centenary in just over a decade. My own history with the publication is much shorter, but I do recall reading the journal as a naïve, and hopefully enthusiastic, undergraduate student in the United Kingdom in the mid- to late-1980s; who would have thought that more than three decades later I would be entrusted with the task of continuing its long and proud history. Also, two papers from my doctoral thesis were published in the journal in the mid-1990s, which between them have by now been cited more than a 1,000 times. I have contributed articles to the journal periodically ever since, as well as serving in various roles on the Editorial Board.


The Severe Exercise Domain Amplitude: A Comparison Between Endurance Runners and Cyclists
João A. G. Raimundo, Tiago Turnes, Rafael A. de Aguiar, Felipe D. Lisbôa, Thiago Locha, Guilherme Ribeiro, and Fabrizio Caputo

Purpose: Metabolic perturbation and VO_ 2 on-kinetics are potential modifiers of fatigue and vary in importance depending on the exercise task. Thus, performance fatigability during high-intensity exercise seems to be exercise mode dependent, affecting tolerance in the severe domain. However, the effects of exercise mode on severe domain amplitude are still unknown. The aims of this study were to compare the severe domain amplitude in endurance runners and cyclists and to verify its possible determinants.
Method: Ten runners and eleven cyclists were tested to determine VO_ 2max, maximal velocity/power output of incremental test (vVO_ 2max/pVO_ 2max), critical velocity/power (CV/CP), distance/work above CV/CP (D′/W′), and the highest velocity/power output which VO_ 2max is attained during constant exercise (VHIGH/PHIGH). The severe domain amplitude was considered as VHIGH/PHIGH relative to CV/CP.
Results: When normalized by vVO_ 2max/pVO_ 2max, although VHIGH and PHIGH were similar, CV (89.0 ± 2.2% vVO_ 2max) was higher than CP (84.0 ± 4.1% pVO_ 2max; p < .05; ES = 1.51). Consequently, the severe domain amplitude was higher in cyclists (153.6 ± 14.4% CP vs. 137.2 ± 14.6% CV; p < .05; ES = 1.13). Runners presented faster VO_ 2 on-kinetics than cyclists at VHIGH/PHIGH. The severe domain amplitude was correlated with D′ (r = .65) and W′ (r = .71), but not with VO_ 2 on-kinetics.
Conclusion: Cyclists have a lower CP (%pVO_ 2max) and a greater severe domain amplitude than runners, providing a greater range of intensities for attainment of VO_ 2max. Furthermore, the severe domain amplitude appears to be linked to finite energy reserves, but unrelated to VO_ 2 on-kinetics.


Isolated Obesity Is Not Enough to Impair Cardiac Autonomic Modulation in Metabolically Healthy Men
Jaqueline A. Araújo, Marilene G. Queiroz, André R. L. Dias, Laila C. J. L. Sousa, Gisela Arsa, and Lucieli T. Cambri

Purpose: To evaluate whether excess body mass influences the heart rate variability (HRV) indexes at rest, and to correlate adiposity indicators and the aerobic fitness with cardiac autonomic variables in metabolically healthy young adults.
Method: In all, 41 untrained males (Mage = 21.80, SD = 2.14 years), 14 normal weight (MBMI = 22.28, SD = 1.86 kg∙m−2 ), 11 overweight (MBMI = 26.95, SD = 1.43 kg∙m−2 ), and 16 obese (MBMI = 33.58, SD = 3.06 kg∙m−2 ) metabolically healthy (normal values of blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol), underwent evaluations of the HRV at rest and of the peak oxygen consumption (VO2 peak) during maximal exercise on a cycle ergometer.
Results: Blood pressure, heart rate, HRV indexes, casual blood glucose, oxidative stress, and antioxidant activity did not differ among the groups. The VO2 peak (mL∙kg−1 ∙min−1 ) was lower in the obese group compared with the normal weight and overweight groups. The body mass (r = −.40 to −.45) and abdominal circumference (r = −.39 to −.52) were slightly to moderately correlated with SD1, SD2, RMSSD, SDNN, pNN50, LF, and HF indexes and total power. The VO2 peak (mL∙kg−1 ∙min−1 ) was slightly to moderately correlated (r = .48 to .51) with SD2, SDNN, and LF indexes in the individuals with excess body mass.
Conclusion: Cardiac autonomic modulation at rest was preserved in metabolically healthy obese young men. However, the indicators of adiposity, as well as the aerobic fitness were correlated with cardiac autonomic modulation in the individuals with excess body mass.


Fundamental Movement Skill Proficiency and Health Among a Cohort of Irish Primary School Children
Linda A. Bolger, Lisa E. Bolger, Cian O’Neill, Edward Coughlan , Seán Lacey, Wesley O’Brien, and Con Burns

Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between fundamental movement skills (FMS) and markers of health among a cohort of Irish primary school children.
Method: Participants (N = 296, mean age: 7.99 ± 2.02 years) were senior infant (n = 149, mean age: 6.02 ± 0.39 years) and 4th class (n = 147, mean age: 9.97 ± 0.40 years) students from three primary schools in Cork, Ireland. FMS proficiency (TGMD-2) and markers of health (BMI percentile, waist circumference percentile, blood pressure percentiles, resting heart rate, cardiorespiratory fitness, objectively measured physical activity; PA) measurements were recorded. Correlation and hierarchical stepwise multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate the relationship between FMS and markers of health.
Results: A small, positive relationship was found between FMS (Gross Motor Quotient; GMQ) and cardiorespiratory fitness with small negative correlations between GMQ and 550 m time SDS among 6-year-olds (r(129) = −.286, p < .05) and 10-year-olds (r(132) = −.340, p < .05). A moderate, positive correlation was found between GMQ and light PA (r(71) = .400, p < .05). Small positive correlations were revealed between GMQ and moderate PA (r(71) = .259, p < .05) and between GMQ and total PA (r(71) = .355, p < .05). After adjusting for age, sex, the interaction effect of age and sex, and school attended, FMS explained 15.9% and 24.8% of the variance in 550 m time SDS among 6- and 10-year-olds, respectively, and 6% and 6.5% of the variance in light PA and moderate PA, respectively. After adjusting for age and sex, FMS explained 11.6% of the variance in total PA.
Conclusion: A wide range of FMS is important for children’s cardiorespiratory fitness and PA.


Effects of Different Chair-Based Exercises on Salivary Biomarkers and Functional Autonomy in Institutionalized Older Women
Taís Rieping, Guilherme Eustáquio Furtado, Rubens Vinícius Letieri, Matheus Uba Chupel, Juan C. Colado, Eef Hogervorst, Edith Filaire, Ana Maria Miranda Botelho Teixeira, and José Pedro Ferreira

Purpose: he aim of this study was to test the effects of chair-based exercise programs on salivary stress hormones, physical fitness, and functional autonomy of institutionalized older women.
Method: In total, 47 participants (80 ± 8.04 years old) were recruited and allocated into three groups: chair-based aerobic exercises (CAE, n = 19), chair-based elastic-band strength exercises (CSE, n = 15), and a control group (CG, n = 13). A 14-week exercise intervention was done for the CAE and CSE groups, two times per week, in no consecutive days. Members of the CG did not participate in any type of exercise but kept their regular lifestyle. Fear of falling, autonomy, physical fitness, salivary cortisol, and alpha-amylase levels were assessed before and after the intervention.
Results: The CAE group improved upper and lower body strength, agility–dynamic balance, and autonomy, with fear of falling decreasing significantly (p < .05, moderate effect size). Both exercise groups showed a trend toward an increase in salivary alpha-amylase levels (CAE = 43%, d = .31, and CSE = 44%, d = .41).
Conclusion: Both exercise programs were able to improve functional autonomy, even in elders older than 80 years of age. It might be interesting to investigate the effectiveness of combining both aerobic and strength exercises in a unique protocol. The modulation effect of exercise in the hormonal responses needs to be further explored.


Effects of Different Models of Water-Based Resistance Training on Muscular Function of Older Women
Thaís Reichert, Natália Carvalho Bagatini, Nicole Monticelli Simmer, Andressa Pellegrini Meinerz, Bruna Machado Barroso, Alexandre Konig Garcia Prado, Rodrigo Sudatti Delevatti, Rochelle Rocha Costa, Ana Carolina Kanitz, and Luiz Fernando Martins Kruel

Purpose: To compare the effects of three water-based resistance trainings on neuromuscular parameters of older women.
Method: Thirty-six women were randomized to groups: simple set of 30 seconds (1 × 30 s, 66.41 ± 4.71 years, n = 12), multiple sets of 10 seconds (3 × 10 s, 66.50 ± 4.74 years, n = 11), and simple set of 10 seconds (1 × 10 s, 65.23 ± 3.93 years, n = 13). Maximal isometric strength concomitantly with neuromuscular activity during extension and flexion knee was evaluated. In the same exercises, rate of force development at different time intervals was measured. Finally, functional capacity was assessed.
Results: All trainings promoted similar improvements in the rate of force develpment of extension (effect size RFD 50 ms: 1 × 30 s .49, 3 × 10 s .67, 1 × 10 s .65; ES RFD 100 ms: 1 × 30 s .76, 3 × 10 s .80, 1 × 10 s .63; ES RFD 250 ms: 1 × 30 s .31, 3 × 10 s .49, 1 × 10 s .37) and flexion knee (ES RFD 50 ms: 1 × 30 s .59, 3 × 10 s .31, 1 × 10 s .48; ES RFD 100 ms: 1 × 30 s .41, 3 × 10 s .44, 1 × 10 s .42; ES RFD 250 ms: 1 × 30 s .57, 3 × 10 s .36, 1 × 10 s .43; ES RFD maximal: 1 × 30 s .63, 3 × 10 s .23, 1 × 10 s .26), however only the 3 × 10 s group improved the performance in the 8-foot up-and-go test (ES 3 × 10 s: .93, 1 × 30: .39, 1 × 10 s: .23). There was a maintenance of the isometric force and neuromuscular activity, except for the activity of the rectus femoris that showed an increase after training in all groups (ES 3 × 10 s: .04, 1 × 30: .36, 1 × 10 s: .50).
Conclusion: Water-based resistance training using simple or multiple sets promotes the same gains in rapid strength, however only multiple sets induced improvement on functional capacity.


Group-Based Emotions: Evidence for Emotion-Performance Relationships in Team Sports
Mickaël Campo, Stéphane Champely, Benoît Louvet, Elisabeth Rosnet, Claude Ferrand, Janet V. T. Pauketat, and Diane M. Mackie

Purpose: In team sports, players have to manage personal interests and group goals, emphasizing intricacies between personal and social identities. The focus of this article was to examine the effect of identity mechanisms on appraisal processes, based on the following research question: Does the level of self-abstraction (low (personal identity) versus high (social identity)) lead to group-based emotions and influence performances?
Method: An experimental design was used in which the level of self-abstraction was manipulated through the induction of a self- versus a team-oriented goal. Thirty elite male rugby players (Mage = 19.06, SD = 0.78, randomly split) participated in a match reproducing conditions similar to those of official games. Individual and perceived team-level emotions and performance were measured 17 times during the match.
Results: Linear Mixed Effects models showed that a high level of self-abstraction: (a) led to more positive and less negative individual (variances explained: 52% and 46%) and perceived team-referent (variances explained: 57% and 40%) emotions; (b) reduced the correlation of teamreferent emotions with individual ones; and (c) positively influenced team and individual performances (variances explained: 50% and 19%). Moreover, after controlling for potential effects of the level of self-abstraction, only positive team-referent emotions influenced performance.
Conclusion: This study is the first to experimentally manipulate athletes’ social identity to examine group-based emotions in sport. Challenging the usual intrapersonal approaches, these findings suggested that social identity and its association with team-referent emotions could be one of the key dimensions of emotion-performance relationships in team sports.


How Much Does Experience Matter in NCAA Division I Volleyball? A Retrospective Study
Jennifer Bunn, Summer Schuitema, Sidong Zhang, and Jerry Mayhew

Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between years of collegiate playing experience and success of NCAA Division I volleyball programs.
Method: Data were gathered from the 2010–2015 seasons for each volleyball program in the “power five” conferences. Players that were involved in at least 66% of the sets were selected for analysis. Each player’s years of college experience were tabulated and a team average experience score was created. This score was correlated with the end of season Ratings Percentage Index (RPI). Years with a significant correlation between success and experience were further analyzed for differences in on-court statistics by years of experience.
Results: The range for team average experience score was 2.52–2.66. Only the 2012 season showed a moderate correlation between the team average score and RPI (ρ = −0.421, p = .001), indicating that more experienced teams finished with a higher national ranking. Within this year, teams with more experience had a statistically significant (p < .05) higher season win percentage, higher conference win percentage, higher hitting percentage, more kills/set, and more assists/set than teams with low or only moderate experience.
Conclusion: These data suggest that more collegiate playing experience does not always result in a significantly more successful season, but trends indicate that a relationship does exist between experience and success. In the one year that showed significance, more experienced teams had more favorable statistics related to skills that terminate play (e.g., kills) rather than ball control skills (e.g., digs and passing).


Coaching Efficacy, Player Perceptions of Coaches’ Leadership Styles, and Team Performance in Premier League Soccer
Lesika Keatlholetswe and Leapetswe Malete

Purpose: This study examined if coaching efficacy is predictive of player perceptions of coaches’ leadership styles, team atmosphere, and team performance in a soccer season.
Method: Fifteen male premier league soccer coaches (Mage = 45.27, SD = 6.07) and 226 players (Mage = 25.66, SD = 3.96) from Botswana participated in the study. All participants completed a background information questionnaire. Coaches completed the Coaching Efficacy Scale. Players rated their coaches’ leadership styles using the Revised Leadership Scale for Sports as well as team atmosphere. Team performance was based on position in the league log and player ratings of the teams’ performance.
Results: Findings showed that coaches’ self-ratings on technique efficacy predicted player perceptions of the coaches’ use of all six leadership styles. Game strategy efficacy predicted higher team atmosphere and team performance. Motivation efficacy was not significantly associated with player perceptions of the coaches’ use of any of the leadership styles, while character building efficacy was negatively associated with the various leadership styles.
Conclusion: Findings provide support to previous research evidence linking higher coaching efficacy, leadership styles, and team outcomes. The study expands the emergent research within the coaching competency literature that examines player perceptions of coaches’ behaviors and leadership styles.


Research Notes

The Effect of In-Season Traditional and Explosive Resistance Training Programs on Strength, Jump Height, and Speed in Recreational Soccer Players
MatBrad Griffiths, James Grant, Louis Langdown, Paulo Gentil, James Fisher, and James Steele

Purpose: Resistance training is often performed in a traditional training style using deliberate relatively longer repetition durations or in an explosive training style using maximal intended velocities and relatively shorter repetition durations. Both improve strength, “power” (impulsivity), and speed. This study compared explosive and traditional training over a 6-week intervention in 30 healthy young adult male recreational soccer players.
Method: Full body supervised resistance training was performed 2 times a week using 3 sets of each exercise at 80% of one repetition maximum to momentary failure. Outcomes were Smith machine squat 1 repetition maximum, 10 meter sprint time, and countermovement jump.
Results: Both groups significantly improved all outcomes based on 95% confidence intervals not crossing zero. There were no between-group differences for squat 1 RM (TRAD = 6.3(5.1 to 7.6) kg, EXP = 5.2(3.9 to 6.4) kg) or 10 meter sprint (TRAD = −0.05(−0.07 to −0.04) s, EXP = −0.05(−0.06 to −0.03) s). Explosive group had a significantly greater increase in countermovement jump compared to the traditional group (TRAD = 0.7(0.3 to 1.1) cm, EXP = 1.3(0.9 to 1.7) cm).
Conclusion: Both the traditional training and explosive training performed to momentary failure produced significant improvements in strength, speed, and jump performance. Strength gains are similar independent of intended movement speed. However, speed and jump performance changes are marginal with resistance training.