rqes cover june 2019
June 2019



RQES: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport

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  June 2019 (Volume 90, Issue 2)

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Table of Contents

Free Access Article
/ Facilitators and Barriers to Movement Integration in Elementary Classrooms: A Systematic Review
Robert Dan Michael, Collin A. Webster, Cate A. Egan, Lynda Nilges, Ali Brian, Robert Johnson & Russ L. Carson

Purpose: A systematic review was conducted to identify facilitators and barriers to movement integration (MI) in elementary school classrooms.
Method: Online databases (Educational Resources Information Center, Google Scholar, PsycINFO, and PubMed) served as data sources for the study. Following the PRISMA guidelines, relevant published research on MI was identified and screened for inclusion in a qualitative synthesis. Content analysis of the included articles (N = 28) was used to identify themes of MI facilitators and barriers. Facilitators and barriers were then categorized using a social-ecological framework.
Results: A total of 12 themes of MI facilitators and barriers were identified and categorized into two social-ecological levels: institutional factors (e.g., administrative support, resources) and intrapersonal factors (e.g., teacher confidence, ease of implementation).
Conclusion: This review can inform research and practice aimed at supporting the implementation of MI in elementary classrooms.



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Effect of Weight Training with Pelvic Floor Muscle Training in Elderly Women with Urinary Incontinence
Janeisa Franck Virtuoso, Enaiane Cristina Menezes & Giovana Zarpellon Mazo

Purpose: To determine if weight training combined with pelvic floor muscle training is more efficient than pelvic floor muscle training alone for the treatment of urinary incontinence (UI) symptoms in elderly women.
Method: This was a two-arm, parallel, randomized controlled trial. Twenty-six women with stress UI participated in the study. The intervention group (IG) underwent training with moderate intensity weights combined with pelvic floor muscle training, whereas the control group (CG) only underwent pelvic floor muscle training. Intervention occurred twice a week over 12 weeks. The International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire–Short Form was used as the main measure. Scores of zero defined the absence of symptoms. The absence of symptoms was evaluated at 4 weeks, 12 weeks, and 1 month after the end of treatment. Moreover, activities related to UI and the use and change of daily protection were investigated.
Results: The rate of absence of symptoms was significantly higher in IG after 4 weeks (58.3%) compared to CG (14.8%). The relative risk was 4.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] [1.08, 16.06]). Although no intention-to-treat analysis was performed, there was no difference in the evaluations after the interventions.
Conclusion: Compared to pelvic floor muscle training alone, the combination of weight training and pelvic floor muscle training provided earlier improvement of UI in elderly women.


Prediction of peak O2 in Children and Adolescents With HIV From an Incremental Cycle Ergometer Test
Luiz Rodrigo Augustemak de Lima, Diego Augusto Santos Silva, Paulo Cesar do Nascimento Salvador, Carlos Alencar Souza Alves Junior, Priscila Custódio Martins, João Antônio Chula de Castro, Luiz Guilherme Antonacci Guglielmo & Edio Luiz Petroski

Purpose: To examine the capacity of physiological variables and performance to predict peak oxygen consumption (peak V˙O2) in children and adolescents living with HIV.
Method: Sixty-five children and adolescents living with HIV (30 boys) aged 8–15 years, participated in the study. Peak V˙O2 was measured by breath-by-breath respiratory exchange during an incremental cycle ergometer until volitional exhaustion. Information on the time to exhaustion, maximal power output (Pmax), and peak heart rate (peak HR) were also recorded.
Results: Predictive models were developed and all equations showed the ability of performance variables to predict peak V˙O2. However, Model 1 was based only on Pmax by following equation: Y = 338.8302 + (Pmax [W] * 11.16435), R2 = 0.90 and standard error of estimation (SEE) = 180 ml⋅min−1.
Conclusion: The V˙O2 peak can be predicted simply by the Pmax obtained from the incremental cycle ergometer test. This protocol is a valid and useful tool for monitoring the aerobic fitness of children and adolescents living with HIV, especially in resource-limited settings.


The Influence of Feedback on Competence, Motivation, Vitality, and Performance in a Throwing Task
Juan A. García, Rodrigo J. Carcedo & Juan L. Castaño

Purpose: The purpose of this work is focused on the study of the effect that feedback has on competence valuation, perceived competence, autonomous motivation, vitality, and performance in a throwing task.
Method: Thirty-five college students (26 men and 9 women), without previous experience in the task, participated in this study. The students were randomly assigned to three experimental conditions (positive, negative, and lack of feedback).
Results: The results of this study point out that only those who received positive feedback before the handball throwing task, in contrast to those who received negative feedback or did not receive any feedback, showed increased levels of competence valuation (p < .05, Cliff’s delta effect size = −.30), perceived competence (p < .001, Cliff’s delta effect size = −.77), and autonomous motivation (p < .05, Cliff’s delta effect size = −.48). This group also presented higher levels of perceived competence (p < .001, Cliff’s delta effect size = −.84) and subjective vitality (p < .001, Cliff’s delta effect size = −.80) than the group who received negative feedback after the throwing task. Those who received positive feedback also showed a higher throwing speed at the end of task than those who received negative feedback (p < 0.001, Cliff’s delta effect size = −.71) or than those who did not receive any feedback (p < .05, Cliff’s delta effect size = −.56).
Conclusion: Competence valuation, perceived competence, autonomous motivation, subjective vitality, and throwing speed were favorably influenced by positive feedback. These results have important implications for the training style applied by coaches.


Creating Appropriate Training Environments to Improve Technical, Decision-Making, and Physical Skills in Field Hockey
Ewout A. Timmerman, Geert J. P. Savelsbergh & Damian Farrow

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of eight different small-sided games (SSG) on physical, technical, and decision-making demands of training environments in U14 field hockey.
Method: A total of 13 participants played eight different training games consisting of two 7.5-minute halves, where number of players (three per side or six per side) and/or field characteristics (normal game, cage hockey game, possession game, and two-goals game) was manipulated. Match performance was determined by using notational analysis, and physical demands were determined by using GPS analyses.
Results: Findings revealed that lowering the number of players increased the number of technical actions performed per player and the physical demands of the SSG. Findings of the field characteristics manipulation revealed that the possession game forced players to control the ball more as a team, which resulted in more passes (+4.82 passes) and fewer dribbles (−1.48 dribbles) and tackles (−0.69 tackles) compared to the normal game. The two-goals game led to players scoring more goals (+0.61 goals) compared to the normal game, while the cage hockey game increased passing (+1.46 passes) and physical demands (+7.32 meters per minute) compared to the normal game.
Conclusion: It can be concluded from these findings that coaches and trainers are able to promote a change in playing behavior, and in turn the development of skills, by manipulating specific constraints of the training environment.


Reviewing the Variability-Overuse Injury Hypothesis: Does Movement Variability Relate to Landing Injuries?
Andrew D. Nordin & Janet S. Dufek

Purpose: Overuse injuries are common in sport, but complete understanding of injury risk factors remains incomplete. Although biomechanical studies frequently examine musculoskeletal injury mechanisms, human movement variability studies aim to better understand neuromotor functioning, with proposed connections between overuse injury mechanisms and changes in motor variability.
Method: In a narrative review, we discuss the variability-overuse injury hypothesis, which suggests repeated load application leads to mechanical tissue breakdown and subsequent injury when exceeding the rate of physiological adaptation. Due to the multidisciplinary nature of this hypothesis, we incorporate concepts from motor control, neurophysiology, biomechanics, as well as research design and data analysis. We therefore summarize multiple perspectives while proposing theoretical relationships between movement variability and lower extremity overuse injuries.
Results: Experimental data are presented and summarized from published experiments examining interactions between experimental task demands and movement variability in the context of drop landing movements, along with comparisons to previous movement variability studies.
Conclusion: We provide a conceptual framework for sports medicine researchers interested in predicting and preventing sports injuries. Under performance conditions with greater task demands, we predict reduced trial-to-trial movement variability that could increase the likelihood of overuse injuries.


Students’ Perceptions of Technology Integration During the F.I.T. Unit
Risto Marttinen, David Daum, Ray N. Fredrick III, Joshua Santiago & Stephen Silverman

Purpose: This study sought to explore students’ experiences of the Fitness Integrated with Technology (F.I.T.) unit and of their perceptions of using technology in physical education.
Method: This manuscript is part of a larger mixed-methods study that measured student attitude and physical activity (PA) levels of 221 students in sixth, seventh, and eighth grades. Selected students (N = 13; seven girls) were observed and then interviewed after the unit through semistructured interviews. Students were identified based on their PA levels and attitude scores from a baseline measurement. The unit was designed to deliver fitness-based knowledge and used accelerometers as a tool to measure and teach students about PA.
Results: Three themes emerged from the data analysis: (a) technology and problems implementing it, (b) homework in PE, and (c) potential motivational effects of technology. The lack of access to technology at home and the design and utility of the accelerometers were perceived barriers. Additionally, homework was not well received. The accelerometer seemed to have a motivational effect on increasing students’ PA levels but wore off during the unit.
Conclusion: Results demonstrate that the use of technology for some students was a motivating factor to increase PA, and the use of accelerometers was a welcomed addition for students. Some students, however, raised concerns with the integration of technology such as the bulkiness of the accelerometer, not being able to wear it at sporting events, a novelty effect, and lack of access to technology at home that limited their interaction with their accelerometer data.


An Investigation Into Handedness and Choking Under Pressure in Sport
Christopher Mesagno, Jacob Garvey, Stephanie J. Tibbert & Peter Gröpel

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether athletes’ handedness may be linked to choking susceptibility (i.e., likelihood to experience performance decline under pressure).
Method: Twenty right-handed and 13 left-handed experienced Australian football players completed 15 shot attempts, in both a low-pressure and a high-pressure condition. Both groups displayed equal state anxiety increases due to the pressure manipulation, indicating similar increases in anxiety in both handedness groups.
Results: Differences were indicated in performance between the left- and right-handed groups during the high-pressure condition, with the left-handed group maintaining, and the right-handed participants declining, performance.
Conclusion: Future electroencephalogram (EEG) research investigating this link may clarify the effect between handedness and choking.


Research Notes

Performance Differences between National Football League and High School American Football Combine Participants
Zachary M. Gillen, Marni E. Shoemaker, Brianna D. McKay & Joel T. Cramer

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine magnitudes of differences for anthropometric and athletic performance scores between high school and elite college-level American football players.
Method: Participants included high school-age (n = 3,666) athletes who participated in American football combines, as well as elite college-level (n = 5,537) athletes who participated in the National Football League (NFL) scouting combine. Combine data included position; height; weight; 10-, 20-, and 40-yard dash; pro-agility (PA); L-cone drill (LC); vertical jump (VJ); and broad jump (BJ). Athletes were separated into their respective position group, defensive back (DB), wide receiver (WR), linebacker (LB), quarterback (QB), running back (RB), tight end (TE), defensive line (DL), and offensive line (OL) for analysis of performance differences. Percent differences for each dependent variable were calculated to quantify magnitudes of differences.
Results: NFL combine participants scored 3% to 25% better on all measurements, with the largest differences between weight and VJ (14%–25%).
Conclusion: The largest measurement-specific differences between high school-age and elite college-level American football players were body size and power. Although it may seem intuitive that elite college-level players would perform better, these data provide a unique perspective to high school players, parents, and coaches, giving new information to use when designing measurement-specific athletic development programs. Thus, strength and conditioning professionals may benefit from emphasizing increases in muscle mass and power output in strength and conditioning programs.

A Coding System to Quantify Powerful Actions in Soccer Match Play: A Pilot Study
Conall F. Murtagh, Robert J. Naughton, Allistair P. McRobert, Andrew O’Boyle, Ryland Morgans, Barry Drust & Robert M. Erskine

Purpose: The powerful activity profile of elite soccer match play has not been documented appropriately to inform specific maximal power assessment and development criteria. The aims of the current study were to develop a reliable soccer-specific powerful action (SSPA) notational analysis coding system that could be used to compare frequency and durations of powerful actions during elite youth soccer match play.
Method: Sixteen elite male English Premier League (EPL) Academy players (19 ± 1 yrs) were recorded by an individual camera during 16 competitive EPL U18 and U21 games. Video footage was analyzed using performance analysis software and SSPAs were coded according to the following categories: initial acceleration, leading acceleration, sprint, unilateral jump and bilateral jump.
Results: The SSPA coding system demonstrated very good inter- and intra-rater reliability (kappa coefficients ≥ 0.827). Elite youth EPL soccer players undertook significantly more initial (31 ± 9) and leading (37 ± 12) accelerations than sprints (8 ± 3; p = .014, d = 1.7, and p < .001, d = 1.7, respectively) and jumps (6 ± 5; p = .002, d = 1.7 and p < .001, d = 1.7, respectively). Players performed a significantly greater number of initial and leading accelerations with action durations below 1.5 s compared to above 1.5 s (p = .001, d = 1.6, and p = .002, d = 1.4), respectively.
Conclusion: Our SSPA coding system provides a reliable observational instrument for quantifying the frequency and duration of powerful actions performed during elite soccer match play. In our sample of elite youth soccer players, horizontal accelerations of short duration (< 1.5 s) from different starting speeds appear the most dominant powerful action in elite youth soccer match play.

Energy System Contributions in Upper and Lower Body Wingate Tests in Highly Trained Athletes
Ursula F. Julio, Valéria L. G. Panissa, Rubiana L. Cury, Marcus F. Agostinho, João V. D. C. Esteves & Emerson Franchini

Purpose: This study compared the energy system contributions and relationship between mechanical and energy system variables in upper and lower body Wingate tests (WAnT) in judo athletes.
Method: Eleven male judo athletes (18 ± 1 years, 174.3 ± 5.3 cm, 72.6 ± 9.9 kg, 11.8 ± 1.7% body fat) attended two laboratory sessions to perform two WAnT (upper and lower body) and two incremental tests (upper and lower body). The energy contributions of the oxidative, glycolytic, and phosphagen (ATP-PCr) systems were estimated based on oxygen consumption (V˙O2) during WAnT, delta of lactate, and the fast phase of excess V˙O2, respectively.
Results: The upper and lower body presented similar results of oxidative (21 ± 4% vs 23 ± 3%) and ATP-PCr system contributions (29 ± 6% vs 32 ± 5%). The glycolytic system contribution (50 ± 5% vs 45 ± 4%) was higher in the upper body. The variance of mechanical variables in upper body was explained by glycolytic (R2 = 0.49–0.62) and oxidative systems (R2 = 0.44–0.49), whereas the variance of mechanical variables in lower body was explained by ATP-PCr (R2 = 0.41–0.55) and glycolytic systems (R2 = 0.62–0.94).
Conclusion: During WAnT, the glycolytic system presented the major energy contribution, being higher in the upper body. Moreover, mechanical and energy system variables presented a distinct relationship when comparing upper and lower body WAnT.

Vertical Jump Performance in Hungarian Male Elite Junior Soccer Players
Leonidas Petridis, Katinka Utczás, Zsófia Tróznai, Irina Kalabiska, Gergely Pálinkás & Tamás Szabó

Purpose: Vertical jump is a common test to measure impulsive ability in soccer; however, limited normative data have been published on young soccer players from vertical jump measurements on a force platform. The purpose of this study was to provide normative values for three chronological age groups of male junior soccer players (U16, U17 and, U18 years).
Method: Vertical jump performance of 365 soccer players (16.4 ± 0.8 years) was assessed using a force platform measurement system. Net impulse, force, power, jump height (impulse-momentum), jump height (flight time) were reported for each age group for squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ).
Results: Mean values ± SD of jump height were 32.9 ± 4.1, 33.5 ± 4.0, and 33.9 ± 4.2 cm for the three age groups respectively in SJ and 36.3 ± 3.8, 37.5 ± 3.9, and 38.6 ± 4.4 cm in the CMJ. Mean values of all age groups for maximum force and maximum power were 1559 ± 211 N and 3261 ± 492 watt respectively for SJ and 1598 ± 241 N and 3287 ± 502 watt for CMJ. Based on descriptive data, percentiles were reported for all examined variables.
Conclusion: Jump height and relative values were less sensitive discriminator variables between age groups in the studied age range, while maximum impulse, maximum force, and maximum power were more sensitive to changes in maturational status. Normative values can be used by the coaches in the interpretation and evaluation of their athletes’ performance and for training and talent identification purposes.