rqes cover June 2023
June 2023



RQES: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport

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  June 2023 (Volume 94, Issue 2)

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Table of Contents

Free Access Article
Classroom Activity Breaks Improve On-Task Behavior and Physical Activity Levels Regardless of Time of Day

Abigail A. Broad, Derek P.D. Bornath, Daniel Grisebach, Seth F. McCarthy, Pamela J. Bryden, Jennifer Robertson-Wilson, and Tom J. Hazell

Purpose: To examine the effect of CAB at different times within the school day on on-task behavior and PA levels in primary school (grade 1– 3) children.

Methods: Thirty-five children (6 ± 1 y, 22 = male, 13 = female) participated in four conditions in a randomized order: morning (AM), afternoon (PM), morning and afternoon (BOTH), and no CAB (CTRL). CAB followed a traditional Tabata format of 20 s work and 10 s rest repeated 8 times for a total of 4 min. PA levels were monitored (accelerometry). On-task behavior and three types of off-task (motor, verbal, passive) were recorded following each CAB (mobile application).

Results: When compared to control, AM, PM, and BOTH increased on-task behavior AM: Δ10.4%, PM: Δ10.5%, BOTH: Δ14%; p < .001). AM was most beneficial for reducing off-task motor (Δ-6.5%) and off-task verbal (Δ-3%) behavior, while PM was most beneficial for reducing off-task passive (Δ-9%) behavior. These effects were greatest in those students demonstrating higher amounts off-task behavior during CTRL (r > 0.67, p < .001). Students achieved an additional 8.4 (p = .070; d = 0.93), 12.2 (p < .001, d = 0.49), and 6.3 min (p = .09, d = 0.47) of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) over 24 h following a CAB vs CTRL in AM, PM, and BOTH, respectively. Additionally, performing any of the CAB conditions increased the number of steps taken during the school day by an average of 2007 steps (p < .009).

Conclusions: Overall, these results demonstrate that CAB improve both on-task behavior and PA levels, regardless of time of day. However, performing two CAB (BOTH) is recommended to derive the greatest improvements in on-task behavior across the school day.


Monitoring Training Load, Immune-Endocrine, Autonomic Nervous System Responses, and Swimming Performance in Women’s Water Polo

50 Million StrongTM: The Contribution of Sports Coaching

The Role of Content Knowledge in Influencing Student Physical Activity, On-Task Behavior, and Skill Performance

A Single Dose of Ibuprofen Impacts IL-10 Response to 164-km Road Cycling in the Heat

Experiences of Size Inclusive Physical Activity Settings Among Women With Larger Bodies

Associations of Motor Competence, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Physical Activity: The Mediating Role of Cardiorespiratory Fitness

Examining Variations Between Everyday Life Handedness and Lateral Preferences for Sport-Specific Skills in Children

Are There Common Correlates of Adolescents’ Sport Participation and Screen Time?

The Relationship Between Perceptions of Physical Self-Worth, Subdomain Importance, and Physical Fitness in Adolescents With Low Motor Competence: An Exploratory Study

Expectation of Teaching and Self-Controlled KR in Motor Skills Acquisition: Are There Additive Effects?

Mental Fatigue Impairs Postural Stability in Older Adults

Muscle Strength Assessed by Handgrip Strength Moderates the Relationship Between Overweight and Obesity With Cardiometabolic Risk Markers Among Adults and Older Adults

Increased Lean Body Mass After Bodyweight-Based High Intensity Interval Training in Overweight and Obese Men

Post-Exercise Hyperbaric Oxygenation Improves Recovery for Subsequent Performance

Assessment of Peak Physical Demands in Elite Women Soccer Players: Can Contextual Variables Play a Role?

Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Does Not Affect Velocity Loss During a Typical Resistance Exercise Session

Agreement Between Body Mass Index and Body Fat in Adolescents With Different Physical Activity Levels

Impact of Warm-Up on Muscle Temperature and Athletic Performance

Heart Rate Responses and Cardiovascular Adaptations to Resistance Training Programs Differing in Set Configuration: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Kinematics of Backward Standing Starts in Elite Cyclists: The Effect of Initial Crank Angle

Associations Between College/University Physical Activity Requirements and Student Physical Activity

Predicting Hamstring Strains in Soccer Players Based on ROM: An Analysis From a Gender Perspective

Effects of Training Loads on Stress Tolerance and Mucosal Immunity in High-Intensity Functional Fitness Athletes

The Influence of L-menthol on Time Trial Running Performance in Recreational Runners

Matching Learning Tasks With Students’ Conative Stages in Badminton: Effects on Situational Interest

A Longitudinal Study on the Evolution of the Four Main Football Leagues Using Artificial Intelligence: Analysis of the Differences in English Premier League Teams

Two-Year Effectiveness of a Controlled Trial With Physically Active Lessons on Behavioral Indicators of School Children

A Short-Term Eccentric HIIT Induced Greater Reduction in Cardio-Metabolic Risk Markers in Comparison With Concentric HIIT in Sedentary Overweight Men

Slow-Speed Low-Intensity but Not Normal-Speed High-Intensity Resistance Exercise Maintains Endothelial Function

Mental Rotation of Tactic Board Instructions in Basketball: Domain-Specific Expertise Improves On-Court Performance

Listening to Fast-Tempo Music Improves Physical Performance in Recreational Swimmers

Caffeine Combined With Sodium Bicarbonate Improves Pacing and Overall Performance During a High-Intensity Time Trial