September 2018


RQES: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport

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  September 2018 (Volume 89, Issue 3)

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Table of Contents

Free Access Article
/ Moving Forward: A Research Agenda for SHAPE America
Darla Castelli and Hans van der Mars

The research arm of SHAPE America – Society of Health and Physical Educators (and before that the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD)) has a long history within our national society. Scientific inquiry in physical education, which evolved into kinesiology starting in the 1960s, has historically been a presence at the annual national conventions. Alongside the more professionally focused associations within the AAHPERD, the Research Consortium (now called the Research Council) has been and continued to be a mainstay. Each year, the Research Council prepares a research program at the national convention that caters to scholars in the various subdisciplines and includes both the dissemination of new research and professional development for new and experienced research scholars. For example, the most recent national convention in Nashville included close to 400 refereed research presentations across multiple disciplinary areas, such as teaching and learning.



Special Topics
/ The 2018 C. H. McCloy Lecture: Utility of the Youth Compendium of Physical Activities
Barbara E. Ainsworth, Kathleen B. Watson, Kate Ridley, Karin A. Pfeiffer, Stephen D. Herrmann, Scott E. Crouter, Robert G. McMurray, Nancy F. Butte, David R. Bassett, Stewart G. Trost, David Berrigan, and Janet E. Fulton

Purpose: The purposes of this article are to: (a) describe the rationale and development of the Youth Compendium of Physical Activities (Youth Compendium); and (b) discuss the utility of the Youth Compendium for audiences in research, education, community, health care, public health, and the private sector.
Method: The Youth Compendium provides a list of 196 physical activities (PA) categorized by activity types, specific activities, and metabolic costs (youth metabolic equivalents of task (METy)) as measured by indirect calorimetry. The utility of the Youth Compendium was assessed by describing ways in which it can be used by a variety of audiences.
Results: Researchers can use METy values to estimate PA levels and determine changes in PA in intervention studies. Educators can ask students to complete PA records to determine time spent in physical activities and to identify health-enhancing activities for classroom PA breaks. Community leaders, parents, and health care professionals can identify activity types that promote healthful behaviors. Public health agencies can use the METy values for surveillance and as a resource to inform progress toward meeting national physical activity guidelines. Applications for the private sector include the use of METy in PA trackers and other applications.
Conclusion: The National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research Web site presents the Youth Compendium and related materials to facilitate measurement of the energy cost of nearly 200 physical activities in children and youth. The Youth Compendium provides a way to standardize energy costs in children and youth and has application for a wide variety of audiences.


/ SHAPE America’s 50 Million Strong™: Critical Research Questions Related to Youth Physical Activity
Heather Erwin, Timothy A. Brusseau, Russell Carson, Samuel Hodge, and Minsoo Kang

SHAPE America – Society of Health and Physical Educators has targeted youth physical activity (PA) as 1 of its 4 goals within the 50 Million Strong™ campaign. Only 27.1% of youth met the target of all students (preK–12) participating in at least 60 min of PA that increases their heart rate enough to breathe hard at least some of the time for 7 days/week. Thus, improvements for child and adolescent engagement in PA need to be made now through 2029 and beyond. The need for these improvements warrants research related to PA and youth. We present a plethora of research questions within 3 general areas: PA and school PA programs, PA and sedentary behavior measurement, and PA and social justice imperatives. Each question is framed within the social-ecological framework levels of learning, opportunity, policy, and population health.


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Females With Visual Impairments in Physical Education: Exploring the Intersection Between Disability and Gender Identities
Justin A. Haegele, Amanda Yessick, and Xihe Zhu

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to use an explicitly intersectional approach to examine the embodied experiences of individuals identifying as female and as having a visual impairment in school-based physical education.
Method: An interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) research approach was used, and 8 adult women (ages 21–30 years) with visual impairments acted as participants for this study. The primary sources of data were semistructured audiotaped telephone interviews and reflected field notes. Data were analyzed thematically using a 3-step analytical process inspired by IPA.
Results: Based on the data analysis, 3 interrelated themes were constructed from the participant transcripts. The first theme, “Girls don’t like gym anyway”: limited participation from the female perspective, described the participants’ experiences with limited participation and the influence of gender and visual impairment on these limitations. The second theme, “She can’t do what other kids can do”: teachers’ expectations and unable bodies, described how the participants’ unable or flawed bodies influenced their teachers’ expectations of their abilities in physical education. The final theme, “It was really awkward”: feelings about negative peer interactions, demonstrated participants’ embodied perspectives toward bullying and other negative peer interactions.
Conclusion: Utilizing an IPA approach, the researchers constructed 3 themes that exposed central experiences and reflections that were informed by the participants’ identified gender and disability. Through the lens of intersectionality, these themes contribute to our understanding of how multiple identities (femaleness, visual impairment) contributed to disadvantages in physical education contexts.

Moderate-Intensity Oxygen Uptake Kinetics: Is a Mono-Exponential Function Always Appropriate to Model the Response?
Julian Dale and Mark Glaister

Purpose: This study investigated the existence of the oxygen uptake () overshoot and the effects of exercise intensity and fitness status on the response during moderate-intensity exercise.
Method: Twelve “high-fitness” (Mage = 26 ± 5 years; Mheight = 184.1 ± 5.4 cm; Mbody mass = 76.6 ± 8.9 kg; mean peak oxygen uptake (peak) = 59.0 ± 3.3 mL·kg−1·min·−1) and 11 “moderate-fitness” (Mage = 29 ± 5 years; Mheight = 178.7 ± 7.5 cm; Mbody mass = 81.7 ± 10.9 kg; MV̇O2peak = 45.2 ± 3.1 mL·kg−1·min·−1) participants performed square-wave transitions from unloaded cycling to 3 different intensities (70%, 82.5%, and 95% of the gas exchange threshold). The data were modeled using both a mono-exponential function (Model 1) and a function that included a switch-on component (Model 2). The overshoot was computed by subtracting the steady state from the peak of the modeled response and by calculating the area of the curve that was above steady state.
Results: The goodness of fit was affected by model type (p = .002) and exercise intensity (p < .001). High-fitness participants displayed a smaller τ (p < .05) and a larger amplitude (p < .05) and were more likely to overshoot the steady state (p = .035). However, while exercise intensity did affect the amplitude (p < .001), it did not affect τ (p ≥ .05) or the likelihood of an overshoot occurring (p = .389).
Conclusion: While exercise intensity did not alter the response, fitness status affected τ and the likelihood of an overshoot occurring. The overshoot questions the traditional approach to modeling moderate-intensity data.

Optimization of Maximal Rate of Heart Rate Increase Assessment in Runners
Clint R. Bellenger, Rebecca L. Thomson, Kade Davison, Eileen Y. Robertson, Maximillian J. Nelson, Laura Karavirta, and Jonathan D. Buckley

Purpose: Correlations between fatigue-induced changes in exercise performance and maximal rate of heart rate (HR) increase (rHRI) may be affected by exercise intensity during assessment. This study evaluated the sensitivity of rHRI for tracking performance when assessed at varying exercise intensities.
Method: Performance (time to complete a 5-km treadmill time-trial (5TTT)) and rHRI were assessed in 15 male runners following 1 week of light training, 2 weeks of heavy training (HT), and a 10-day taper (T). Maximal rate of HR increase (measured in bpm·s−1) was the first derivative maximum of a sigmoidal curve fit to HR data recorded during 5 min of running at 8 km·h−1 (rHRI8km·h−1), and during subsequent transition to 13 km·h−1 (rHRI8–13km·h−1) for a further 5 min.
Results: Participants in the RUN condition compared with those in the CON condition showed shorter reaction time on the inhibition task, F(1, 50) = 5.59, p = .022, η2 = .101, and recalled more words in the immediate- and delayed-recall tests, F(1, 50) = 8.40, p = .006, η2 = .144.
Conclusion: The 5TTT performance was tracked by both rHRI8km·h−1 and rHRI8–13km·h−1. Correlations between rHRI and performance were stronger in a subgroup of athletes who exhibited a slower 5TTT. Individualized workloads during rHRI assessment may be required to account for varying levels of physical conditioning.

Effect of Dehydration on Passing Decision Making in Soccer Athletes
Leonardo S. Fortes, José R. A. Nascimento-Júnior, Arnaldo L. Mortatti, Dalton Roberto Alvas Araújo de Lima-Júnior, and Maria E. C. Ferreira

It seems that dehydration may impair decision-making performance in athletes.
Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the influence of dehydration on passing decision-making performance in soccer players.
Method: Participants were 40 male soccer players (Mage = 22.3 ± 2.3 years) who agreed to participate in the study and were randomly assigned to the following conditions: control (CON), dehydration (DEH), and euhydration (EUH). The players played in 2 games of 90 min in duration (2 45-min halves) followed by 2 15-min halves (overtime) with and without proper hydration. The Game Performance Assessment Instrument (GPAI) was considered for the analysis of passing decision making.
Results: The GPAI analysis indicated effective reduction in the decision-making index in the DEH condition compared with the EUH and CON conditions, F(2, 38) = 31.4, p < .05, ES = 0.8.
Conclusion: In conclusion, dehydration may be considered a mediating factor in the passing decision-making performance of male soccer athletes.

Research Notes

Supramaximal Eccentrics Versus Traditional Loading in Improving Lower-Body 1RM: A Meta-Analysis
Andrew N. L. Buskard, Heath R. Gregg, and Soyeon Ahn

Guidelines for improving maximal concentric strength through resistance training (RT) have traditionally included large muscle-group exercises, full ranges of motion, and a load approximating 85% of the 1-repetition maximum (1RM). Supramaximal eccentric training (SME; controlled lowering of loads above the concentric 1RM) has also been shown to be effective at increasing concentric 1RM in the lower body, but concerns regarding injury risk, postexercise soreness, and null benefit over traditional methods (TRAD) may limit the practical utility of this approach.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether SME elicits greater lower-body strength improvements than TRAD.
Method: Thirteen healthy women and 13 healthy men were recruited. Vastus lateralis pennation angle, fascicle length, and muscle thickness, as well as knee extensors eccentric, isometric, and concentric peak torque and one-repetition maximum (1RM) were measured. Both women and men underwent a unilateral iso-load knee-extension eccentric-only training with 120% of the concentric 1RM, consisting of 4 sets × 10 repetitions twice a week for a total of 8 weeks.
Results: Supramaximal eccentric training did not appear to be more effective than TRAD at increasing lower-body 1RM ( = .33, SE = .26, z = 1.26, 95% CI (–0.20, 0.79), p = .20, I2 = 56.78%) under a random-effects model where between-study variance was estimated using maximum likelihood estimation ( 2 = .25).
Conclusion: The selection of SME over TRAD in RT programs designed to increase lower-body 1RM does not appear warranted in all populations. Further research should clarify the merit of periodic SME in TRAD-dominant RT programs as well as whether a differential effect exists in trained individuals.

Sex-Related Responses to Eccentric-Only Resistance Training in Knee-Extensors Muscle Strength and Architecture
Giuseppe Coratella, Stefano Longo, Emiliano Cè, Eloisa Limonta, Susanna Rampichini, Angela Valentina Bisconti, Federico Schena, and Fabio Esposito

Purpose: The present study aimed to investigate whether or not eccentric-only training induced different sex-related adaptations in vastus lateralis muscle architecture and knee extensors strength.
Method: Key inclusion criteria were regular exercise modalities typical of nonspecialized exercise facilities (e.g., leg press; key exclusion: isokinetic dynamometer) and at least 6 weeks of RT exposure, leading to 5 studies included in the current meta-analysis. Unbiased effect-size measures that quantify the mean difference in lower-body 1RM between SME and TRAD were extracted.
Results: Pennation angle increased in women (+ 14%, 95% CI (10, 17), effect size (ES) = 1.54) but not in men (+ 5%, 95% CI (−1, 11), ES = 0.28), while fascicle length increased in both women (+ 7%, 95% CI (4, 10), ES = 1.02) and men (+ 12%, 95% CI (8, 16), ES = 1.82) and muscle thickness increased in women (+ 13%, 95% CI (8, 18), ES = 1.11) and men (+ 11%, 95% CI (7, 15), ES = 0.89). In both women and men, eccentric (18%, 95% CI (11, 25), ES = 0.96, and 16%, 95% CI (9, 22), ES = 0.82, respectively), isometric (17%, 95% CI (11, 23), ES = 0.53, and 17%, 95% CI (10, 24), ES = 0.62), concentric (12%, 95% CI (7, 16), ES = 0.49, and 9%, 95% CI (5, 13), ES = 0.42) peak torque and 1RM (10%, 95% CI (6, 14), ES = 0.53, and 10%, 95% CI (5, 15), ES = 0.50) similarly increased after the intervention.
Conclusion: This study showed that the adaptations in strength are not sex-dependent, but the increases in pennation angle only in women suggest that the changes in muscle architecture may depend on sex.

Self-Narrative Profiles of Elite Athletes and Comparisons on Psychological Well-Being
Benjamin J. Houltberg, Kenneth T. Wang, Wei Qi, and Christina S. Nelson

Further research is needed on factors related to the emotional health of elite athletes. Previous research has linked self-narratives of people or their narrative identities to their psychological well-being. However, no study has yet examined self-narratives among elite athletes.
Purpose: This study examined whether specific profiles or narrative identities of athletes emerge through multiple self-narrative indicators; these profiles were compared on measures of psychological well-being (e.g., depression, anxiety, postfailure shame levels, and life satisfaction).
Method: Self-report data were collected from a sample of elite athletes (n = 99, Mdn age = 22 years, 52% male, 53% individual sports) competing at a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division 1, professional, or Olympic level.
Results: Latent profile analysis revealed 3 profile types that significantly differed on measures of psychological well-being. Athletes with a performance-based narrative identity (high perfectionism, fear of failure, and contingent self-worth) demonstrated the highest levels of psychological disruptions (highest levels of depression, anxiety, and shame; lowest levels of life satisfaction), whereas a purpose-based narrative identity (high purpose, global self-worth, positive view of self after sport) was associated with the highest level of psychological well-being (lowest levels of depression, anxiety, and shame; highest levels of life satisfaction). Athletes in the mixed-type profile class reported better psychological well-being compared with the performance-based profile class but not the purpose-based profile class.
Conclusion: Our findings provide initial evidence that particular self-narrative profiles of elite athletes contribute to their own psychological well-being in a significant way. Possible implications for practitioners are also discussed.

Physical Education Teachers’ Awareness and Understanding of Concussions, and Concussion Policies and Protocols
Kasee Hildenbrand, K. Andrew R. Richards, and Paul M. Wright

Purpose: Our primary aim was to determine physical educators’ current level of understanding of concussion symptoms and response guidelines.
Method: Participants included 404 in-service physical educators (137 male, 266 female, 1 other) recruited through 3 SHAPE America – Society of Health and Physical Educators communication outlets. Participants were asked to complete an online survey. The survey included 8 questions related to previous concussion training, 6 items to measure awareness of concussion policies, 20 items related to concussion symptoms, and 14 items for concussion knowledge. Analyses included descriptive statistics and 2 × 2 (Coaching × Concussion) factorial analyses of variance to examine differences in study variables by coaching status and participants’ personal concussion experiences.
Results: Participants reported they did not have any formal role or responsibility related to concussion management, and more than half reported their districts did not require concussion training. Nevertheless, many physical educators were receiving training (n = 291, 72%). Participants who also coached were more aware of concussion policies and systems than were their counterparts, but there were no differences related to concussion facts.
Conclusion: School districts are generally not requiring concussion management training for physical education teachers or giving them specific responsibilities in the management process, yet many physical educators are getting trained. This training often occurs online and may be required for secondary responsibilities such as coaching. Participants reported being aware of concussion policies and procedures but were less likely to agree that this awareness has resulted in changes in how they teach physical education. Participants also knew more about concussion facts than about the legitimacy of symptoms.

Improving Functional Movement Proficiency in Middle School Physical Education
Cheryl A. Coker

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine whether functional movement proficiency could be improved as measured via the Functional Movement Screen using a standardized warm-up protocol in middle school physical education. A secondary purpose was to determine whether such improvement, if it occurred, would positively influence the technical performance of 4 fundamental motor skills: overhand throw, vertical jump, kicking, and running.
Method: Participants were 120 7th- and 8th-grade physical education student volunteers. Two classes from each grade level were assigned to the functional group (N = 54) while the remaining 2 classes of each grade were assigned to the control group (N = 66). Baseline measures were obtained using the Functional Movement Screen and the Get Skilled: Get Active (2000) process-oriented motor skill assessment. For 6 weeks, the functional group warmed up by performing functional stretching, stability, and mobility exercises while the control group completed a traditional dynamic warm-up.
Results: According to gain score analysis, those in the functional group significantly reduced dysfunctional movements (scores of 1) compared with those in the control group. Further, boys in the functional group significantly improved their Functional Movement Screen composite score as compared with their male counterparts in the control group whose scores declined. No differences were found for fundamental motor skill performance.
Conclusion: Replacing the traditional dynamic warm-up with one that emphasizes functional movement in preparation for activity in physical education appears effective for correcting movement dysfunctions in young adolescents.

Relative Age Effect, Biological Maturation, and Coaches’ Efficacy Expectations in Young Male Soccer Players
Iván Peña-González, Jaime Fernández-Fernández, Manuel Moya-Ramón, and Eduardo Cervelló

Purpose: The talent identification and selection process in young male soccer players is mainly focused on anthropometrics and physical performance, but social factors are also considered in this process. The purpose of this study was to test the existence of the relative age effect and its possible influence on anthropometrics and physical performance and to analyze coaches’ efficacy expectations.
Method: Data for 564 young male soccer players (Mage = 13.7 ± 1.5 years; Mweight = 53.7 ± 11.6 kg; Mheight = 160.2 ± 11.6 cm) included their birth quartile, maturity status, anthropometrics, a physical test battery, and coaches’ efficacy expectations.
Results: Early-born players were overrepresented (p < .05). Early-born players were not statistically taller, heavier, or better at physical performance (p > .05) when maturation and chronological age were controlled as confounding factors. However, coaches expected more from early-born players (p < .05), and the inferential analysis showed likely to very likely worthwhile differences between the coaches’ expectations for players born in the first quartile of the year and those born in the fourth quartile of the year.
Conclusion: Anthropometrical and physical performance variables were not affected by birth quartile, and coaches’ efficacy expectations were related to the relative age effect.

Feasibility for the Use of a Standardized Fitness Testing Protocol Among Australian Fitness Industry Professionals
Jason A. Bennie, Glen H. Wiesner, Ineke Vergeer, Tracy L. Kolbe-Alexander, Katrien De Cocker, Chris Alexander, and Stuart J. H. Biddle

Purpose: There is currently no standardized testing protocol for assessing clients’ fitness/health within the Australian fitness industry. This study examined the perceptions of the feasibility of using a standardized testing protocol among Australian fitness industry professionals.
Method: In 2014, 1,206 registered fitness industry professionals (aged 17–69 years) completed an online survey. Perceived feasibility for using a standardized testing protocol was assessed based on responses to 6 items. Respondents were classified as having a high level of perceived feasibility if they reported all 6 items to be “definitely feasible.” A multivariate logistic regression analysis, adjusting for demographic and fitness industry-related factors (e.g., qualification/years of experience), assessed the likelihood of having a high level of perceived feasibility.
Results: Overall, 25.5% (95% CI (23.1%, 28.0%)) of the sample perceived the use of a standardized testing protocol as highly feasible. Items ranked most often as “definitely feasible” were “undertaking training to use the protocol” (55%) and “conducting follow-up testing every 6 to 12 weeks” (52%). After adjustment for the effect of confounding factors, casually employed professionals (OR = 0.63; 95% CI (0.45, 0.90)) and group instructors (OR = 0.58; 95% CI (0.41, 0.82)) were less likely to perceive standardized testing protocols as highly feasible.
Conclusion: Among a large sample of Australian fitness industry professionals, slightly more than a quarter perceived using a standardized testing protocol to be highly feasible. Group instructors and casual employees perceived lower feasibility. Further research should determine the barriers to implementing a standardized testing protocol across the fitness industry.