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April 2024


JOPERD: Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance

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  April 2024 (Volume 95, Issue 4)

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Table of Contents

Free Access Article
The Odds of Meeting Physical Activity Guidelines in Children Receiving School-Based Fitness Testing Awards: NHANES 2013-2016

Nicole Fiscella, Jaehun Jung, MooSong Kim & Willie Leung

Fitness testing and awards have been used in physical education classrooms for over 50 years. While their initial intention was to promote physical activity engagement, analyses show they are not achieving their goal. This article highlights fitness testing awards and the need to re-evaluate how they can help meet the physical activity guidelines for children ages 5 to 15 years. A cross-sectional secondary data analysis was employed using data from the 2013-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (N = 3973). Analysis results showed that receiving fitness awards is not associated with children meeting physical activity guidelines. It is thus important for physical education teachers and school administrators to adopt and implement process-based fitness testing awards (e.g., giving awards for an individual’s fitness-behavior goal achievement or improvement) along with performance-based fitness awards to enhance children’s physical activity levels.


Health-Based Physical Education for Developing Physical Literacy: Strategies for Implementation and to Promote Motivation in Middle Schools

Physical education is often viewed as a public health tool that can be used to increase the amount of physical activity young people engage in. However, not only should the amount of physical activity at school and in physical education lessons be increased, but students should also acquire the knowledge, skills, motivation and responsibility that enable them to stay active outside of school and for the rest of their lives, that is, to develop their physical literacy. The purpose of this article is to provide physical education teachers with useful guidelines for the implementation of the Health-Based Physical Education model as a way to contribute to the physical literacy of middle school students. Furthermore, a series of strategies is provided to promote students' commitment, motivation and participation when implementing the model.

Beyond ‘Brain Breaks’: A New Model for Integrated Classroom-based Active Breaks

Regular physical activity provides physical, mental and cognitive benefits for children. However, globally, only 20% of children meet the recommended levels of physical activity and, on average, students sit for three-quarters of the school day. Active breaks are a well-tested component of many school-based physical activity interventions, but there are many barriers to the sustainable implementation of active breaks by teachers in schools. To overcome these barriers, the narrow, traditional idea of the ‘brain break’ needs to be reconceptualized, where active breaks are viewed as being separate from learning and teaching, and where physical activity is perceived as an interruption to learning. This article presents the TransformUs Active Break (TAB) model, which positions active breaks as part of an overall approach to proactive classroom management and as a key contributor to effective teaching. The TAB model comprises five types of active breaks, each serving a specific educative function—structure, transition, manage, energize and learn. The model demonstrates how active breaks can be integrated meaningfully into lessons to enhance teaching and learning as an effective approach for sustained school-based physical activity.

Quality Supervision of Preservice Teachers in Field Experiences: Strategies and Practices for PETE Programs

Quality supervision is essential for preservice teachers’ (PSTs) development of teaching effectiveness, as it purposefully structures PSTs’ learning experiences in a systematic and developmentally appropriate manner, provides specific feedback, includes formal and informal assessment of PSTs’ teaching, and facilitates opportunities for PSTs to reflect on and adapt their teaching. However, with the increasing challenges and demands of supervision in school settings, supervisors often find themselves frustrated and less supported. This article aims to address these issues by presenting four valuable strategies and their associated practices that physical education teacher education (PETE) programs and supervisors, particularly university supervisors, can employ while supervising PSTs. These strategies are: (1) establishing a supervision structure, (2) refining the evaluation system, (3) varying supervisory approaches, and (4) integrating educational technology. Associated practices within each strategy and resources are included as well. By actively adopting these practices, PETE programs can elevate their supervision quality and positively impact the teaching effectiveness of their PSTs.

Implementing and Marketing an Online Social-Emotional Learning Yoga Program: A Collaborative Approach

Physical education teacher education and sport marketing courses both require their majors to apply theory into real-world experiences that simulate the professional experience upon earning their degrees. After-school programming serves as a potential field site for teacher candidates and can also provide sport marketing students with the opportunity to authentically engage in the process of marketing and promotion. This article describes a collaboration between two university courses focused on implementing and marketing a middle school social-emotional learning yoga after-school program. The yoga program was virtual due to the pandemic, and it was led by university personnel. Teacher candidates learning basic teaching behaviors in their coursework logged in and engaged with the students and the content throughout the semester. Sport marketing students completed a project focused on marketing the program to secure additional student participants, and they also developed group names and logos to engage the community beyond the program. Collaborations across disciplines can enhance community-engaged partnerships, practical experiences for college students, and youth experiences in after-school programming.



Physical Literacy from the Start! The Need for Formal Physical Literacy Education for Early Childhood Educators

The early years of childhood development are a significant time for the acquisition and application of skills that foster motor development, cognitive understanding, and social well-being. However, there are gaps in knowledge of and practical skills for developing physical literacy within early childhood educator preparation programs. This article explains why training early childhood educators in physical literacy is crucial and how to do so.


Batting for Primary-Age Children: A Movement Concepts Medley

Batting or striking with a long-handled implement is an important fundamental motor skill used in several lifetime activities. This article outlines basic movement concepts that are developed through batting and provides recommendations that can serve as both curricular options for physical education and a potential homework idea for kids to explore at home.


United We Learn: Seven Strategies for Fostering an Inclusive and Engaging Synchronous Online Teaching Environment

Since online learning may be the best option for some programs or institutions, college instructors should have the competence and confidence to offer relevant learning experiences for their students in online learning environments. This article provides physical education teacher education (PETE) faculty with effective strategies for fostering an inclusive and engaging synchronous online learning environment for college students using a range of technology tools.


Teaching Health Behaviors that Correlate with Centenarian Longevity and Quality of Life

Data show that centenarian populations mostly consume a whole-food, plant-based diet, live an active lifestyle, and avoid toxins. Many Americans, however, do the opposite and succumb to numerous health-related diseases at a much earlier age. The lesson presented in this article was designed to help the health educator to use this data in their quest to improve the health of their students and increase the odds of them having a high-quality life.


Recklessness or Simple Negligence

A girls’ field hockey team coach instructed players to warm up in an area adjacent to the school’s turf field, where the boys’ soccer team was practicing. Plaintiff Morgan Dennehy, a member of the field hockey team, was struck at the base of her skull by an errant soccer ball. The plaintiff filed this suit against the coach, the school and others due to the defendants’ alleged failure to supervise and prevent potential and foreseeable dangerous conditions.