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September 2023


JOPERD: Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance

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  September 2023 (Volume 94, Issue 7)

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Table of Contents

Free Access Article
Enhancing School Connectedness through Recreation-Based Learning: Practical Strategies Guided by Theory and Practice

Kelly Ramella, Allison Ross, and Dana Perlman

Creating school connectedness can enhance the overall development and academic progress for youth. The purpose of this article is to provide teachers with both a theoretical and applied understanding of how to develop and support school connectedness with students through recreation-based learning activities. The theoretical concepts grounded within Self-Determination Theory that can support the need for student relatedness (e.g., feeling cared for and/or emotionally heard) are discussed. In addition, practical evidence-based strategies are outlined from a two-year school and community-based program conducted in Arizona called Therapeutic and Inclusive Recreation Programming.


Applications of Cognitive Load Theory in Strength and Conditioning Course: Considerations and Implementations

The Cognitive Load Theory (CLT) aims to foster learning productively under optimal cognitive loads. Students across all ages and stages of learning have limited capacity due to the human brain's functionality. Therefore, an effective learning design allows for knowledge acquisition that will minimize the loading effect on the working memory and foster the transition of knowledge to unlimited long-term memory. This article introduces the Cognitive Load Theory effects within Kinesiology instructional settings. In specific, the authors share examples of three cognitive load effects: (a) goal-free effect, (b) split attention effect, and (c) redundancy effect; and its implementations within the strength and conditioning for educators' course in higher education settings.

The Peak Performance Pyramid for Motor Skills: A Conceptual Framework for Helping Learners Reach their Potential

Elite motor skill performance is a highly-variable, complex phenomenon that is regularly observed and examined globally in various contexts such as sporting events like the Olympic games or professional contests, concert halls featuring accomplished musicians and singers, or sold-out venues that feature comedians or motivational speakers. Many professional groups have a vested interest in developing, maintaining, or understanding high levels of motor performance, including coaches, physical educators, exercise scientists, performance psychologists, and elite performers themselves, to name a few. While skill acquisition is a natural part of the human experience, the attainment of peak performance, which may be defined as optimal functioning or full use of potential, in a given domain is significantly more elusive and difficult to obtain. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to present a utilitarian, efficient framework for considering and understanding peak performance and offer a discussion of the critical variables that are involved, based on the interdisciplinary nature of its study and evidence from previous research in underlying areas. This framework, entitled the Peak Performance Pyramid for Motor Skills, is designed to provide practitioners from a variety of disciplinary backgrounds with a resource for identifying potential strengths and areas of improvement in diverse learners.

Exploring New Approaches to Youth Sports Programs: Montessori Motor Development

Children are being introduced to organized sports programs at younger ages today. The first experience sets the stage for how they may view their physical competency and acceptance within a group. In these experiences, frequently, the coach is a well-intended parent who may not have any background in coaching or physical education training. Dr. Maria Montessori is widely known for her contributions to experiential learning for young children. Although Montessori addressed motor development through her pedagogical approach, it is rarely associated with physical education or sports. This article aims to provide some insight to educators, physical education teachers, coaches, and parents with an alternative approach to sport introduction through a Montessori theoretical lens which may allow children to develop a love for physical activity and/or future athletes.

Incorporating Stillness During Physical Education Class

SHAPE America has outlined proactive ways to approach movement opportunities during physical education class. These possibilities can range from structuring the student learning experience to how teachers implement instruction. While movement provides a foundation for many of the activities offered, what is not discussed is how to use stillness, an absence of movement, to scaffold learning. Using stillness can provide an augmented learning experience, during the limited time offered in the gymnasium, by empowering students as they understand the movement, maintain body control in appropriate situations, and stop the movement with intention. Instructor focus should not only be on teaching movement, but also having awareness of being still in appropriate situations. This paper will explore how stopping movement may enhance learning by: (a) stillness and lesson plans, (b) using stillness for different skill levels, and finally, (c) incorporating stillness in assessment and accountability (d) assessment, stillness, and curriculum.

Using Technology to Understand Students’ Optimal Challenges and Promote Intrinsic Motivation in Physical Education

Youth are inactive in today’s world. Integrating autonomy, competence, and relatedness into Physical Education objectives to provide optimally challenging tasks for students may be an effective approach to making them love physical activity. Optimal challenge, or the challenge level of the task matches the student’s competence, can provide them with the greatest sense of competence, satisfaction, and/or pleasure. It presents one adaptive intrinsic goal of motivation in Self-Determination Theory. Participation in optimally challenging situations can give students a sense of mastery, enhance their conceptions of competence, and lead to enjoyment, thus, increasing intrinsic motivation. The purpose of this article is to encourage physical educators to introduce opportunities for students to experience optimal challenges and, thereby, offer students the chance to feel the rewards of being self-regulated and intrinsically motivated. This article shares one tool, miMove, that many teachers have used successfully throughout virtual teaching to engage students in more physical activity. Physical educators could use this mobile APP to better understand how students perceive their own learning and integrate student choice and learner-centered pedagogical strategies. Consequently, it offers students opportunities to explore their own understanding of content, introduces autonomy, and stimulates students' ability to connect to content authentically.

Using a flipped classroom to improve student analysis and feedback to peers in the reciprocal style of teaching

Quality physical education programs target student learning outcomes in all three learning domains. One instructional strategy that has the potential to reach learning outcomes and national content standards is the reciprocal style of teaching. Research examining the reciprocal style of teaching has shown a plethora of desirable learning outcomes such as, motor skill improvement, increase cognition about critical skill elements, and the ability to foster a more inclusive environment can be achieved. However, there is evidence suggesting that peer student observers struggle with diagnosing skill-error and providing accurate feedback related to performance. A flipped classroom can address these issues by affording students with online learning experiences that help improve their skill analysis and feedback skills prior to class. Physical education teachers can implement a flipped classroom with the intention of improving the reciprocal style of teaching by following four simple steps: (1) develop content; (2) embed formative assessments; (3) upload the content; and (4) review student responses. Physical education teachers will find many benefits to this approach, including less pressure to execute a long demonstration that addresses psychomotor, cognitive, and affective outcomes, and an increase in class time that can afford students more opportunities to respond as the doer and observer resulting in an increase in student learning.



Sex Discrimination Title IX

Court records indicated that, on April 19, 2007, Plaintiffs filed a class action complaint against Sweetwater alleging unlawful sex discrimination under Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 and the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. They alleged that Sweetwater intentionally discriminated against female students at Castle Park High School (Castle Park) by unlawfully failing to provide female student athletes equal treatment and benefits as compared to male athletes. They said that female student athletes did not receive an equal opportunity to participate in athletic programs, and were deterred from participating by Sweetwater's repeated, purposeful, differential treatment of female students at Castle Park. Plaintiffs alleged that Sweetwater ignored female students' protests and continued to unfairly discriminate against females despite persistent complaints by students, parents and others.


Understanding of John Dewey’s Four Impulses of Learning in Physical Education

Quality physical education (QPE) cannot be solely driven by one quality program, rather they are driven by structures that formed the QPEs. Accordingly, the Society of Health and Physical Educators - SHAPE America (2015) has delineated four essential components to provide a strong foundation for physical education: Policy and Environment, Curriculum, Appropriate Instruction, and Student Assessment.


Dismantling School Administrators’ Neoliberal Priorities: Creating Spaces for Physical Educators to Thrive

School administrators can facilitate various funds and resources for quality physical education, or can present various obstacles and barriers to physical education teachers and programs. School administrators that support and prioritize physical education can allocate adequate funding for equipment, facilities, and resources. Additionally, they can ensure that physical educators have the necessary training and support to create engaging and effective curricula and lessons. Conversely, school administrators that do not value physical education can negatively impact programming by reducing funding for physical education. They can also create cultures that leads teachers and students to diminish the impact of physical education, simply by holding a low value of it.