Table of Contents
Physical Education for Children with Visual Impairment or Blindness
– Lauren Lieberman, Monica Lepore, Maria Lepore-Stevens & Lindsay Ball
There are over 61,000 school-age children with visual impairments in public schools today. Research has shown that they are often behind their peers in physical activity participation and in motor skills. In order for children with visual impairments to become physically active and self-determined adults, they must be provided the same opportunities as their same-age peers with the support necessary to provide full access to the physical education curriculum. Recent research has shown that teaching children with visual impairments is one of the most complicated inclusion challenges facing physical educators today. Children with visual impairements also experience numerous barriers to physical activity in recreation and personal fitness programs outside of the school setting. Since physical educators report numerous challenges in this area, the purpose of this article is to provide some basic strategies for the inclusion of children with visual impairments in general physical education classes so that they can meet the national and state standards for physical education and make progress toward full participation and self- determination in society.
Applying the TARGET Pedagogical Principles in Physical Education to Enhance Students’ Physical Literacy
— Kevin Morgan
A mastery motivational climate, emphasizing self-referenced and individualized learning in physical education (PE), is consistent with a personalized physical literacy disposition defined as the knowledge and understanding, perceived competence, confidence and motivation to remain physically active for a lifetime. The TARGET acronym (i.e., task, authority, recognition, grouping, evaluation and time) represents the pedagogical principles that promote a mastery motivational climate. The purpose of this article is to propose TARGET as a pedagogical framework to enhance physical literacy in PE.
Whole Child Approach in a Physical Education Program
— Carri Kreider
A high school in the northwestern United States has a student population composed primarily of low income and minority students. Yet, something that sets the school apart is a four-year graduation rate of 95%. While it is difficult to determine all of the factors that contribute to this academic success, this article explains students’ perceptions of how they have reached success through a physical education performance-training program. This program is widely recognized across the state as a top program for students’ physical and academic achievement. Current and past students from this program describe the positive effect it has had on their lives, in more than just the physical realm. The students take pride in their health, take on challenges, and support one another in a caring, supportive environment that helps them develop into leaders and future graduates. The emergent themes align with those of the Whole Child approach, which aims for students to be healthy, safe, engaged, supported and challenged, and is supported by SHAPE America.
Strategies for Teaching Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Recreational Aquatics Programs
— Erin Kraft, Raymond Leblanc, & Diane Culver
With the increase in the identification of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children, there is a need for teachers and coaches to have a tool box of effective strategies to facilitate physical activities for their students with ASD. Physical activity has been shown to provide numerous benefits, such as improved resilience and enhanced positive development. Swimming, specifically, is an optimal form of physical activity for children with ASD and an important life skill, considering that drowning is a leading cause of death among children with ASD. Training programs and educational opportunities for accessing appropriate strategies to teach children with ASD are seemingly scarce. This article aims to minimize this lack of resources by suggesting hands-on teaching strategies for aquatic programs for children with ASD to enhance the swimmers’ opportunities to participate in recreational aquatic activities.
Family and Community Involvement to Increase Physical Activity as Part of a CSPAP
— Cate Egan & Matthew Miller
A comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP) is a multi-component whole-school approach designed to assist schools in targeting opportunities for students to be more physically active and help students achieve the recommended 60 minutes of physical activity (PA) each day. A CSPAP consists of five components (1) quality physical education as the foundation, (2) PA before and after school, (3) PA during school, (4) staff involvement, and (5) family and community engagement. While research is still emerging on family and community engagement as part of a CSPAP, family and community involvement has been researched extensively in education for decades and has shown many positive academic outcomes. Building on education’s success with family and community engagement, this article uses Epstein’s six types of involvement (1) parenting (e.g., providing support and encouragement for PA), (2) communicating, (3) volunteering, (4) learning at home (e.g., PA homework and other curriculum-related activities), (5) decision making (e.g., input from parents and community), and (6) collaborating with the community (e.g., forming partnerships) to describe successful programs. The article provides practical examples for increasing family and community engagement as a part of a CSPAP, to help schools develop strong school, family, and community partnerships which may be key component in increasing youth PA opportunities.
THE LAW AND YOU:
Recent Rulings from the Courts Affecting HPERD Professionals: Reactive vs. Proactive Risk Management in Track and Field
— Mike Stocz & Fred Williams
In this case, a high school track and field participant appealed the decision of the Hamilton District Court in Ohio, where the Board of Education was granted immunity stemming from the incident in which the student was injured during discus practice.
Spikeball for All: How to Universally Design Spikeball
— Nicole Ludwa & Lauren J. Lieberman
This article explains the game of Spikeball and incorporates the principles of universal design for learning to modify rules, equipment and instructional strategies in order to include students with disabilities.
Community Resource Mapping: An Interactive Health Education Lesson
— Michael S. Mucedola
ThThis article outlines a health education lesson that tasks students with identifying and advocating for resources in their community and is aligned with the National Health Education Standards.
A Century of Physical Activity in the United States
— E. Paul Roetert & Russell R. Pate
This viewpoint evaluates the National Physical Education Service, which the federal government implemented in 1918 to combat low levels of physical fitness and poor physical development in youth, and to determine what 21st-century health professionals can learn from it.
10 Tips for Using Video Analysis More Effectively in Physical Education
— Brad Beseler
In order for video replay to be an effective assessment and teaching tool, a number of steps need to be followed. This article provides some useful tips for physical educators to ensure they are implementing this video technology effectively when teaching the overarm throw.
The Enduring Legacy of Earle F. Zeigler (1919-2018)
— Brad Cardinal
Earle F. Ziegler passed away on Saturday, September 29, 2018, in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. This article reviews his influential and substantive work.