Strategies July August 2021 cover
July / August 2021



Strategies: A Journal for Physical and Sport Educators

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  July/August 2021 (Volume 34, Issue 4)

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Table of Contents

Free Access Article
Enhancing Athlete Outcomes through Quality Coaching
– Justin Hebert and Aubrey Newland

This article illustrates the repercussions of coaching aggression, how this type of negative behavior can affect athlete well-being and performance, and what actions can be taken by coaches to bolster current and future chances of success. Coaches need to be aware of how their actions, specifically those which are negative in nature, affect their athletes’ basic needs, motivation, and performance, if they wish to succeed at the highest level. To this end, a self-reflective worksheet, grounded in Basic Needs Theory, is provided to enhance coaches’ understanding of their behaviors on athletes’ performance and well-being. 

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Teacher Thinking and Planning in Physical Education: Answering the Question, “Why”? 
Jennifer El-Sherif 

As physical educators, our goal is to develop a curriculum that helps students’ master skills and prepare them for a lifetime of physical activity. According to SHAPE America, “Physical education provides students with a planned, sequential, K-12 standards-based program of curricula and instruction designed to develop motor skills, knowledge and behaviors for active living, physical fitness, sportsmanship, self-efficacy and emotional intelligence.” This article uses Saphier and Gower’s five levels of teacher thinking to enhance teaching and planning in physical education. 

Ice Skating (Figure Skating) 101: A Lifelong Fitness Activity! 
Kristie Lynch 

Ice skating, also called figure skating, can be categorized as a lifetime fitness endeavor. Figure skating has many benefits that allow skaters opportunities to learn and understand motor skill movement and patterns on the ice. The purpose of this article is to share best practices when teaching the fundamentals of figure skating. Included in these best practices are recommendations and tips for the coach, physical educator and figure skating enthusiast regarding figure skating safety, curriculum, planning and assessment. These ice skating basics can be shared with individuals of all ages, levels and learning needs to maximize student learning, time on ask and increase student interest and enjoyment levels. To reiterate, figure skating can be categorized as a lifetime leisure activity to be enjoyed by individuals, families and friends throughout the years.  

Modifying Golf for Maximizing Learning Opportunities for Children with Visual Impairments
Christopher Mihajlovic 

The purpose of this article is to assist teachers when teaching golf to students with visual impairments. The article presents different approaches that can serve as a guideline for didactic choices and the pedagogical aspects of teaching PE in inclusive settings. Using golf as an example, this article provides instructional strategies and ideas for activity modifications to support students who may need additional support. The purpose of these modifications is to maximize the learning opportunities for children with visual impairments. These activity modifications, however, could also be helpful for all students in the class. 

Servant Leadership: Navigating the Ethical Challenges in Athletics
William Nixon 

The purpose of this article is to explore principles of servant leadership as a solution to the ethical improprieties mounting in the world of intercollegiate and interscholastic athletics. This article will provide a synthesis of servant leadership literature that highlights the importance of behavioral integrity and its role in building trust and strengthening interpersonal relationships. This specific case of servant leadership will provide a model for fostering an ethical climate in sport and expose current leadership practices in intercollegiate athletics that place organization needs ahead of player development, and support the need for ethical reform in intercollegiate athletics. 


Strategies for Effective Cooperating Teacher Observations
– Jamie J. Brunsdon, Craig Parkes, and Teri Schlosser

This article articulates how cooperating teachers can diversify and scaffold their observations in a way that progressively becomes more hands off and can be adjusted to the specific needs of the preservice teacher. It identifies four types of observations that are predominantly, but not exclusively informed by the first authors experiences when training and observing teachers in schools, that can be placed in a sequenced progression of learning activities: (a) flip-flop, (b) whole-part-whole, (c) parrot on the shoulder, and (d) traditional.

Everyday Happiness: A Mental Health Lesson to Help Students Focus on the Positive During the Pandemic
– Sunnin Keosybounheuang

Many teachers have been charged with creating engaging lessons for remote, hybrid and online instruction with little time to make this transition. These challenges of education during the time of a pandemic stretch the efficacy of the strongest character of not only the teacher but the student. Course activities that engage the student and enhance their health in any setting are necessary.  Lessons to help students focus on the good things in their daily lives can help improve self-efficacy in all dimensions. During the lesson, students will not only focus on their own personal happiness but also be aware of what keeps others happy and maintain a quality mental health when they share stories. This is demonstrated in the literature during instruction but also in personal practice while students create their own book.     

A Coach’s Guide to Creating a Team Handbook 
– Christopher D. Pfledderer

This article details the essential components of a team handbook and can be used as a guide for coaches when creating their own team handbook. 

Fitness Drumming: A Cross-Curricular Approach
– Jane Lynes

This article looks at fitness drumming as a viable rhythm and dance alternative for physical education and music classes. Fitness drumming is a fun and innovative activity that can be used for successful implementation of music and rhythms into your physical education and/or music curriculum.  Fitness drumming is easy for elementary school students to learn and is something they enjoy.